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Vol. 57 No.  11 Thursday, January 16, 1992  p 1984 (Proposed Rule) 
    1/967   
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

40 CFR Part 82

[FRL-4092-4]

RIN 2060-AD48

Protection of Stratospheric Ozone 

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Request for data and advance notice of proposed rulemaking.


SUMMARY: Today's notice presents the Environmental Protection 
Agency's (EPA, or the Agency) preliminary strategy for implementing

section 612 of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA).
Additionally, 
today's notice requests producers and formulators of substitutes 
for Class I ozone-depleting substances (i.e., chlorofluorocarbons, 
halons, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride) and Class 
II ozone-depleting substances (i.e., hydrochlorofluorocarbons), 
as well as substitute equipment manufacturers, to voluntarily 
provide EPA with information to facilitate the timely completion 
of risk characterizations on these substitutes. These risk
characterizations 
will be conducted by EPA in early 1992 to implement the Safe 
Alternatives Policy under section 612. This new program will 
be entitled the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program.

   The Agency will use the results of the risk characterization 
to develop an initial list of prohibited substitutes specific 
to a use sector; a preliminary list of corresponding acceptable 
substitutes will also be identified. Any substitute not reviewed 
by the Agency prior to the promulgation of the rules implementing 
the SNAP program (required by November 15, 1992) will need to 
be submitted for review under the SNAP program once it becomes 
effective. The Agency believes that the conduct of risk
characterizations 
prior to the statutory deadline is essential to meet the November 
deadline and to minimize any dampening effect that this section 
of the CAA may have on current industry efforts to phase out 
ozone-depleting substances.

DATES: Written comments on this notice must be submitted on 
or before March 2, 1992. Data submitted by the responder can 
be designated as confidential business information (CBI) under 
40 CFR part 2, subpart B (see section VI for more detail).

ADDRESSES: Written comments should be sent to Docket A-91-42, 
Central Docket Section, South Conference Room 4, Environmental 
Protection Agency, 401 M Street SW., Washington, DC 20460. The 
docket may be inspected between 8 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. on weekdays. 
As provided in 40 CFR part 2, a reasonable fee may be charged 
for photocopying. To expedite review, a second copy of the comments

should be sent to Elaine Haemisegger, Stratospheric Ozone
Protection 
Branch, Global Change Division, Office of Atmospheric and Indoor 
Air Programs, Office of Air and Radiation, ANR-445, 401 M Street 
SW., Washington, DC 20460. Information designated as confidential 
business information (CBI) under 40 CFR part 2, subpart B must 
be sent directly to the contact person for this notice.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine Haemisegger at (202) 
260-9961 or Nina Bonnelycke at (202) 260-1496, Stratospheric 
Ozone Protection Branch, Global Change Division, Office of
Atmospheric 
and Indoor Air Programs, Office of Air and Radiation, ANR-445, 
401 M Street SW., Washington, DC 20460.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 

I. Overview of Today's Notice

   Today's notice is divided into seven sections, including 
this overview:

II. Background

  A. Regulatory History

  B. Subgroup of the Federal Advisory Committee
III. Section 612 Requirements

  A. Rulemaking

  B. Listing of Unacceptable Substitutes

  C. Petition Process

  D. 90-Day Notification
IV. Section 612 Implementation

  A. Guiding Principles

  B. Risk Characterizations

  C. SNAP/Premanufacture Notice (PMN) Overlap

  D. Schedule for Rulemaking
V. Data Requested

  A. Objective

  B. Responders

  C. Information Needs
VI. Confidential Business Information
VII. Paperwork Reduction Act
References
Appendix A: List of Class I and Class II Substances 

II. Background


A. Regulatory History

   On September 16, 1987, the United States and 23 other nations 
signed the Montreal Protocol. The original agreement set forth 
a timetable for reducing the production and consumption of specific

ozone-depleting substances, including CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, 
CFC-114, CFC-115, Halon-1211, Halon-1301, and Halon-2402. EPA 
implemented the original Protocol through regulations allocating 
production and consumption allowances equal to the total amount 
of production and consumption the United States was allowed 
under the Protocol (see final rule promulgated on August 12, 
1988-53 FR 30566) and subsequent minor revisions and amendments 
promulgated on February 9 (54 FR 6376), April 3 (54 FR 13502), 
July 5 (54 FR 26062), and July 12 (54 FR 29337) of 1989, and 
February 13 (54 FR 5007), June 14 (55 FR 24490), and June 22 
(55 FR 25812) of 1990.
   The parties to the Montreal Protocol met in London on June 
27-29, 1990 to consider amendments to the Protocol. In response 
to scientific evidence indicating greater than expected
stratospheric 
ozone depletion, the Parties agreed to accelerate the phaseout 
schedules for the substances already controlled by the Protocol. 
They also added phaseout requirements for other ozone-depleting 
chemicals, including methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 
and other fully-halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
   On November 15, 1990, Congress enacted the Clean Air Act 
Amendments of 1990. Title VI of the CAA requires a phaseout 
of CFCs, halons, and carbon tetrachloride by 2000, which is 
identical to the London Amendments, but with more stringent 
interim reductions. Title VI differs from the London Amendments 
by mandating a faster phaseout of methyl chloroform (2002 instead 
of 2005), a restriction on the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbons 
(HCFCs) after 2015, and a ban on the production of HCFCs after 
2030. In title VI, the CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and 
methyl chloroform are defined as Class I substances; HCFCs are 
referred to as Class II substances. Appendix A lists the Class 
I and Class II substances.
   In addition to the phaseout requirements, title VI includes 
provisions to reduce emissions of Class I and Class II substances 
to the "lowest achievable level" in all use sectors. It also 
requires EPA to: Ban nonessential products; establish standards 
and requirements for the servicing of motor vehicle air
conditioners; 
mandate warning labels on products made with or containing Class 
I or Class II substances; and establish a safe alternatives 
program.

B. Subgroup of the Federal Advisory Committee

   EPA has established a subgroup of the standing Stratospheric 
Ozone Protection Advisory Committee (STOPAC) to provide the 
Agency with guidance on the development of the safe alternatives 
program. In 1989, EPA organized the STOPAC in accordance with 
the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. 
App. section 9(c). The STOPAC consists of members selected on 
the basis of their professional qualifications and diversity 
of perspectives and provides balanced representation from the 
following sectors: Industry and business; academic and educational 
institutions; Federal, state, and local government agencies; 
non-government and environmental groups; and international
organizations. 
Since its formation, the STOPAC has provided advice and counsel 
to the Agency on policy and technical issues related to the 
protection of the stratospheric ozone layer.
   In 1991, members were asked to participate in subgroups of 
the STOPAC to assist the Agency in developing regulations under 
title VI of the CAA. To date, the subgroup on safe alternatives 
has met once to review a detailed overview of EPA's ideas on 
implementation of section 612. At this meeting, there was general 
agreement on the need to develop a data request to provide the 
general public with an opportunity to provide the Agency with 
information on substitutes. The group supported the need to 
review substitutes as quickly as possible to avoid any slowdown 
in industry's efforts to phase out of ozone-depleting substances.

III. Section 612 Requirements

   Section 612 requires EPA to develop a program for evaluating 
safe alternatives. EPA is referring to this new program as the 
Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP). There are four 
major provisions of section 612, as summarized below.

A. Rulemaking

   Section 612(c) requires EPA to enact rules by November 15, 
1992 making it unlawful to replace any Class I or Class II
substance 
with any substitute that the Administrator determines may present 
adverse effects to human health or the environment where an 
alternative has been identified that (1) reduces the overall 
risk to human health and the environment, and (2) is currently 
or potentially available.

B. Listing of Unacceptable Substitutes

   Section 612(c) also requires EPA to publish a list of the 
substitutes prohibited for specific uses. EPA must also publish 
a list of acceptable alternatives for those prohibited substances.

C. Petition Process

   Section 612(d) allows any person to petition EPA to add or 
delete a substance from the list published in accordance with 
section 612(c). The Agency has 90 days to grant or deny a petition.

The petitioner must supply all information needed by the Agency 
to make a decision.

D. 90-day Notification

   Any person who produces a chemical substitute for a Class 
I substance must notify the Agency not less than 90 days before 
new or existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce 
for significant new uses as substitutes for a Class I substance. 
The producer must also provide the Agency with all unpublished 
health and safety studies on such substitutes.

IV. Implementation of Section 612

   This section provides EPA's current thoughts regarding the 
implementation of section 612. This section discusses: Guiding 
principles for the SNAP program; the role of risk characterization 
in the SNAP program; the overlap between SNAP and the new chemicals

review that is currently performed under section 5 of the Toxic 
Substances Control Act (TSCA); and the anticipated schedule 
for completing the proposed and final rulemaking for section 
612. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for the SNAP program 
will develop the implementation strategy more fully.

A. Guiding Principles

   EPA has identified several guiding principles it will consider 
in developing the SNAP program, as discussed below.

1. Evaluate Substitutes Within a Comparative Risk Framework

   In evaluating each substitute, section 612 requires that 
the health and environmental risks be assessed comprehensively. 
This "overall risk" characterization will consider such factors 
as: Toxicity and exposure-both human health and ecological; 
chlorine loadings; ozone-depletion potential; global-warming 
potential; and flammability. To the extent possible, each of 
these factors will be quantified. The Agency does not believe 
that a scheme should be developed to numerically weight the 
risks quantified for each factor, thereby producing one index 
by which all substitutes can be ranked and evaluated. There 
are numerous complexities in the design of such a weighting 
scheme. Furthermore, a quantitative index may not allow for 
sufficient flexibility in making appropriate risk management 
decisions that may need to consider other issues, such as the 
quality of information, the degree of uncertainty in the data, 
the availability of other substitutes, and economic feasibility.
   Economic feasibility must be assessed to ensure that the 
initial list of acceptable substitutes includes alternatives 
that are affordable in the near term. Economics must also be 
considered in evaluating new substitutes against alternatives 
that were previously identified as acceptable. The Agency believes 
that such an examination will help to minimize uncertainty in 
the marketplace and encourage many to substitute sooner rather 
than later.

2. Evaluate Substitute Risks in Context

   Each substitute must be evaluated in the context of (1) the 
risks the substitute is replacing (i.e., the risks of continued 
use of the Class I of Class II substance) and (2) the risks 
from other substitutes.

3. Evaluate Risks by Use

   Section 612 requires that substitutes be evaluated by use. 
Environmental and human health exposures can vary significantly 
depending on the particular application of a substitute. Thus, 
the risk characterizations must be designed to provide data 
on the environmental and human-health impacts associated with 
different use profiles.

4. Provide the Regulated Community with Information as Soon 
as Possible

   While the SNAP regulation must be issued by November 15, 
1992, the Agency recognizes the need to provide the regulated 
community with information on the acceptability of various
substitutes 
as soon as possible. Given this need, EPA has decided to expedite 
the review process by conducting risk characterizations up front 
for those substitutes known to the Agency. The results of the 
risk characterizations will be used, as discussed in the next 
section, to make determinations regarding the acceptability 
of the substitutes. The initial lists of acceptable and prohibited 
substitutes will be published simultaneously with the proposed 
rulemaking for the SNAP program.

5. Develop Lists of Unacceptable Substitutes

   The goal of the SNAP program is to prohibit substitutes that 
are "unacceptable." The Agency does not believe it is either 
feasible or appropriate to certify substitutes as "safe." The 
Agency also does not want to intercede in the choice of available 
substitutes, unless an acceptable substitute has been proposed 
or is being used.

6. Restrict Only Those Substitutes That Are Significantly Worse

   EPA does not intend to restrict substitutes that are acceptable,

but may be marginally worse on some criteria. Drawing fine
distinctions 
concerning the acceptability of substitutes would be extremely 
difficult given the likely uncertainties that exist and the 
broad range of diverse impacts.

B. Risk Characterizations

   This section reviews EPA's objectives in conducting the risk 
characterizations. It also describes the types of substitutes, 
factors, and use sectors that will be examined in the risk
assessments.

1. Objectives

   As mentioned earlier in this notice, the objectives in
completing 
the risk characterizations are to: Disseminate information to 
industry as quickly as possible on acceptable substitutes; meet 
the statutory requirements and implementation deadline of November 
15, 1992 for section 612; and help develop the analytical framework

for evaluating substitutes under the SNAP program.
   The Agency will use the results of the risk characterizations 
to prohibit unacceptable substitutes and to identify the
corresponding 
acceptable substitutes. These determinations will be published 
simultaneously with the proposed and final regulations for the 
SNAP program. Any substitute not reviewed by the Agency prior 
to the promulgation of the rules implementing the SNAP program 
will need to be submitted for review under the SNAP program 
once it becomes effective. The Agency believes that the near-
term risk assessment activities will support industry's ongoing 
phaseout efforts and will ensure the efficient implementation 
of the SNAP program. The risk characterizations will also help 
EPA specify more precisely the types of information that will 
need to be submitted to complete a substitute review under the 
SNAP program. EPA's preliminary assessment of data needs for 
the risk characterizations is included in today's notice (section 
V) and will be refined for inclusion in the Notice of Proposed 
Rulemaking for the SNAP program.

2. Substitutes To Be Evaluated

   Based on the language included in the statement of policy 
in section 612 (a), the Agency believes that a substitute refers 
to any chemical, product substitute, or alternative manufacturing 
process that serves as a replacement for a Class I or Class 
II substance. While subsequent sections refer only to "substitute 
substances" or "substitute chemicals," EPA interprets these 
provisions in section 612 as incorporating the general definition 
of substitute presented in section 612 (a). Furthermore, section 
612 (e) clearly states that a substitute can be either existing 
or new. This definition of a substitute should be used in
responding 
to today's request for information on substitutes.
   Section 612 (c) is also clear that a substitute may be currently

or potentially available. However, the list of acceptable
substitutes 
must include alternatives that are available in the near term 
to support and accelerate industry's ongoing efforts to phase 
out ozone-depleting substances.

3. Key Factors

   The risk characterizations will address several factors, 
including: Chlorine loadings; ozone-depletion potential; toxicity 
to human health and ecosystems; air, water, and solid/hazardous 
waste impacts; exposure to workers, consumers, the general
population, 
and ecosystems; flammability; and global warming potential. 
Where possible, these risk characterizations will quantify
separately 
each of these endpoints. The risk assessments will also include 
information on the incremental costs and benefits associated 
with use of the substitutes.

4. Key Use Sectors

   As discussed above, section 612 requires EPA to identify 
unacceptable substitutes by use category. To this end, the Agency 
will be developing risk characterizations for several key use 
sectors. For the purpose of today's notice, EPA is defining 
a use sector as an application in which an ozone-depleting
substance 
is utilized. The most important uses of CFCs, HCFCs, halons, 
and methyl chloroform are found in:
    Automotive air conditioners
    Commercial air conditioning (e.g., reciprocating, screw, 
and centrifugal chillers)
    Home heat pumps and air conditioners
    Retail food refrigeration
    Cold storage warehouses
    Industrial process refrigeration (e.g., refineries, chemical 
plants, ice machines, and ice rinks)
    Refrigerated transport (e.g., rail cars and trucks)
    Household refrigerators and freezers
    Other household appliances (e.g., dehumidifiers)
    Solvent cleaning (e.g., any cleaning operation involving 
conveyorized vapor degreasing, open-top vapor degreasing, cold 
cleaning, and dry cleaning)
    Sterilization (e.g., hospitals, medical equipment, spice 
fumigant, pharmaceutical, commercial R&D labs, and libraries)
    Foam blowing (e.g., rigid polyurethane, rigid polyisocyanurate,

flexible polyurethane, phenolic, polypropylene, polyethylene, 
polyolefin, PVC, and extruded polystyrene)
    Pesticide formulations
    Aerosols
    Adhesives
    Coatings and inks
    Fire extinguishing (e.g., portable halon fire-fighting 
units, total flooding halon extinguishing systems)
   The majority of carbon tetrachloride (in excess of 97 percent) 
is consumed as a chemical feedstock, primarily for the production 
of CFC-11 and CFC-12. (1) The remaining small uses comprise 
such applications as: Scrubbing liquid to recover chlorine
following 
liquefaction, a diluent for nitrogen trichloride; processing 
solvent for waxes, oils, and paraffins; manufacture of some 
drugs and lubricants; and the processing of uranium salts and 
metal alloys. EPA also requests information on (1) applications 
or uses of Class I and Class II substances that have not been 
identified in either section IV.B.4 or table 1 and (2) substitutes 
not listed in table 1.
   These uses were analyzed in the regulatory impact analysis 
(RIA) that EPA completed to support the phaseout under the Clean 
Air Act and will serve as a starting point for the SNAP program. 
(2) Depending on the substitute and exposure information received 
in response to today's notice, these use-sector designations 
may be either aggregated or disaggregated. Furthermore, several 
use scenarios may be added.

C. SNAP/Premanufacture Notice (PMN) Overlap

   For a new chemical, the regulatory requirements under section 
5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) remain unchanged. 
Thus, EPA is considering that any new chemical-defined as any 
substance not currently on the TSCA inventory-will be subject 
to review both under section 5 of TSCA and section 612 of the 
CAA. To expedite review under TSCA and CAA, EPA is developing 
a joint review process. This process will satisfy the statutory 
requirements of both laws and will ensure consistency in decisions 
reached under SNAP and the premanufacture notice review program 
for new chemicals. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Section 
612 will provide more detail on the interface between SNAP and 
the new-chemical review under TSCA.

D. Schedule for Rulemaking

   EPA is planning to issue a notice of proposed rulemaking 
for the SNAP program by early 1992. This proposal will also 
include an initial list of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes 
based on the results of the risk characterizations. The final 
rule for the SNAP program will be issued in the fall of 1992. 
At this time, EPA will also publish its revised list of prohibited 
and acceptable substitutes. Any substitute not reviewed by the 
Agency prior to the promulgation of the rules implementing the 
SNAP program will need to be submitted for review under the 
SNAP program once it becomes effective.

V. Data Requested


A. Objective

   As mentioned above, the purpose of today's notice is to elicit 
the voluntary submission of information on substitutes for Class 
I or Class II substances. Listed below are the specific types 
of data that will be helpful to the Agency in completing the 
risk characterizations. However, any available data on these 
factors will be considered by the Agency. Data submitted in 
response to this voluntary request can be designated as
confidential 
business information (CBI) under 40 CFR, part 2, subpart B (see 
section VI for more detail).

B. Responders

   For the purpose of today's notice, the Agency is inviting 
all producers and formulators of Class I or Class II substitute 
products, chemicals, and processes, as well as equipment
manufacturers, 
to submit readily available data on alternatives. If respondents 
are aware of submissions that are being made by their trade 
associations in response to today's notice, and this information 
sufficiently addresses substitutes that they are using, there 
is no need for additional data to be submitted. Moreover, users 
of Class I and II substances that believe they have a unique 
or unusual substitute that is not being supplied to them expressly 
for use as a Class I or II substitute are requested to report 
this information.
   To minimize the amount of reporting, the Agency has identified, 
by use sector, those substitutes for which it has already collected

data (see table 1). EPA invites respondents to submit information 
on the substitutes listed in table 1 if the respondent has new 
information. It also requests information on (1) applications 
or uses of Class I and Class II substances that have not been 
identified in either Section IV.B.4 or table 1 and (2) substitutes 
not listed in table 1. There is no need to resubmit information 
that has already been sent to EPA's Office of Air and Radiation 
or Office of Toxic Substances as part of past CFC-related
activities 
or is contained in several reports referenced at the end of 
today's notice. If there are any questions regarding the submission

of information, the respondent is encouraged to telephone the 
EPA contact for this notice (see "For Further Information Contact" 
at the beginning of today's notice).
   Data received in response to today's advance notice will 
be considered by EPA in its initial review of substitutes for 
Class I and Class II substances. The notice of proposed rulemaking 
on the SNAP program, which is anticipated in early 1992, will 
provide the public with another opportunity to provide the Agency 
with information on alternatives.

C. Information Needs

   The Agency is requesting submitters to voluntarily provide 
information on the following topics to assist in examining
substitutes 
under the SNAP program:
    Name and description of the substitute. To the extent possible,

the substitute should be identified by its (1) commercial name, 
(2) chemical name, (3) trade name(s), (4) identification numbers 
(e.g. CAS registry, NIOSH RTECS, EPA hazardous waste, OHM-TADS, 
DOT/UN/NA/IMCO shipping, HSDB, NCI), (5) chemical formula, and 
(6) chemical structure.
    Physical and chemical information. Key properties that 
should be included to characterize the substitute are: molecular 
weight; physical state; melting point; boiling point; density; 
odor threshold' solubility; partition coefficients (Log Kow, 
Log Koc); vapor pressure; Henry's Law Constant.
    Flammability concerns. Data on the flammability of a substitute

chemical or mixture are requested. Specifically, data on flash 
point and flammability limits are needed, as well as information 
on the procedures used for determining the flammability limits. 
Detail on any abatement techniques to minimize the risks associated

with the use of flammable substances or mixtures is also helpful.
    Toxicity data. Information on the human health and ecological 
toxicity of substitute chemicals is needed, such as the Material 
Safety Data Sheet. Any data characterizing both acute and chronic 
effects are useful.
    Ozone-depletion potential. The Agency is interested in 
obtaining information on the ozone-depletion potential of the 
substitute chemicals, if readily available.
    Global-warming potential. Similarly, the Agency is also 
interested in readily available data on the total global-warming 
potential of the substitute chemicals.
    VOC status. Information on whether the substitutes would 
be regulated as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under title 
I of the CAA is requested. VOCs are of concern because of their 
potential to contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone.
    Substitute applications. Identification of the applications 
in which the substitutes are likely to be used is needed. The 
respondent can utilize the use sector designations found in 
section IV.B. 4. of today's notice or can provide more detail 
if appropriate.
    Anticipated market share. Data on the anticipated sales 
of the substitute are useful. In addition, information on the 
expected quantity of the substitute sold by use sector (e.g., 
number of units/products or pounds of substitute) over the next 
five years would be helpful.
    Availability of substitute. The Agency needs to understand 
the extent to which a substitute is already commercially available 
or the expected date at which it may become commercially available.
    Cost of substitute. The cost of the substitute can be
expressed, 
for example, in terms of $/pound (a chemical substitute) or 
as capital and operating costs, as well as expected equipment 
lifetime, for an alternative technology. Other critical cost 
considerations should be identified, as appropriate. For example, 
relative to current uses of Class I or II substances, it is 
important to understand the incremental costs associated with 
losses or gains in energy efficiency associated with use of 
a substitute.
    Required changes in technology. Detail on the changes in 
technologies needed to use the alternative substance is requested. 
In particular, the Agency is requesting information on whether 
the substitute can be used in existing equipment-with or without 
changes-or in new equipment. Data on the cost (capital and
operating) 
and estimated life of the technology should also be submitted.
    Relative effectiveness of the substitute. The Agency is 
requesting information on the relative effectiveness of the 
substitute versus the Class I or II substances being replaced. 
For example, in the case of a degreasing agent, is relatively 
more or less of the substitute chemical needed? This will have 
an impact on the incremental cost and environmental effects 
associated with use of the substitute.
    Environmental release data. Available data on emissions 
from the substitute application and equipment, as well as pollutant

releases or discharge to all environmental media (ambient air, 
surface water, hazardous/solid waste), are needed to complete 
the risk characterization. Any information on any pollution 
controls used or that could be used in association with the 
substitute (e.g., emissions reduction technologies, wastewater 
treatment, treatment of hazardous waste) and the costs of such 
technology is also requested.
    Exposure data. Where available, the Agency is requesting 
extant modeling or monitoring data on exposures associated with 
the manufacture, formulation, transport, and use of a substitute. 
Descriptive information on the processing and use of the
substitutes 
would also be helpful, especially where quantitative modeling 
or monitoring data are not readily available. Depending on the 
application, exposure profiles will be needed for workers,
consumers, 
and the general population.
   Individuals responding to today's notice are requested to 
provide the Agency with information on any additional factors 
that the submitter believes EPA should consider in its risk 
characterization of particular substitutes and use sectors.

VI. Confidential Business Information

   Anyone submitting information must assert a claim of
confidentiality 
at the time of submission for any data it wishes to have treated 
as confidential business information (CBI) under 40 CFR, part 
2, subpart B. Failure to assert a claim of confidentiality at 
the time of submission may result in disclosure of the information 
by the Agency without further notice.
   The Bruce Company, ICF Incorporated, Radian Corporation, 
and Meridian Incorporated are hereby designated as Authorized 
Representatives of the Administrator of the United States
Environmental 
Protection Agency (EPA) for the purpose of assisting EPA in 
the development and the implementation of national regulations 
for the protection of stratospheric ozone, including the
development 
of the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under section 
612 of the Clean Air Act.
   The Authorized Representatives, under EPA Contract 68-D9-
0068 may have access to any information received by the Global 
Change Division within the EPA Office of Atmospheric and Indoor 
Air Programs for use in reviewing the need for possible control 
of any substance, practice, process or activity that may reasonably

be anticipated to affect stratospheric ozone. In general, this 
information will pertain to the feasibility, costs, and
environmental 
and health impacts of using substitutes for Class I and Class 
II substances. Access to such information is necessary to ensure 
that the Bruce Company, ICF Incorporated, Radian Corporation, 
and Meridian Incorporated can complete the work required by 
the contract.
   Authorized Representatives of the Administrator are subject 
to the provisions of 42 U.S.C. 7414(c) respecting confidential 
business information as implemented by 40 CFR 2.301(h).

VII. Paperwork Reduction Act

   The information collection provisions in today's notice have 
been approved by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under 
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, 44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq. 
and has been assigned OMB control number 2060-0226.
   The public-reporting burden for this one-time voluntary
collection 
of information is estimated to average 16 hours per response. 
This estimate includes the time needed to search existing sources, 
gather and review the needed information, and prepare the package 
for submission to EPA. The estimated number of respondents is 
approximately 170, and the estimated total annual burden on 
respondents is 2,720 hours.

   Dated: January 7, 1992.

William K. Reilly,
Administrator.

References
   1. U.S. EPA, Carbon Tetrachloride, Working Paper, Office 
of Atmospheric and Indoor Air Programs.
   2. U.S. EPA, Costs and Benefits of Phasing Out Production 
of CFCs and Halons in the United States, Review Draft, Office 
of Air and Radiation, November 3, 1989.
   3. U.S. EPA, Hydrofluorocarbons and Hydrochlorofluorocarbons: 
Interim Report, External Review Draft, Office of Toxic Substances, 
November 15, 1990.
   4. U.S. EPA, Aqueous and Terpene Cleaning: Interim Report, 
External Review Draft, Office of Toxic Substances, November 
15, 1990.
   5. U.S. EPA, Analysis of the Environmental Implications of 
the Future Growth in Demand for Partially Halogenated Chlorinated 
Compounds, Office of Air and Radiation, EPA 400/1-90-001, January 
1990.


     Table 1.-Possible Alternatives Being Considered for Review
Under the     
              Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program   
          
                                                                   
          
                                                                   
          
                                                                   
          
Automotive Air Conditioners:                                       
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   HFC-134a, HCFC-22, HFC-152a, HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,
HCFC-22/HFC-152a/  
    CFC-114 (interim), cyclopropane.                               
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Absorption, air cycles, evaporative cooling, stirling cycle     
          
Commercial Air Conditioning:                                       
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   CFC-11 centrifugal chillers-HCFC-123, E-245                     
          
   CFC-114 centrifugal chillers-HCFC-124, E-134                    
          
   CFC-12 centrifugal chillers-HFC-134a                            
          
   CFC-500 centrifugal chillers-HFC-134a, HFC-152a,
HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-    
    124.                                                           
          
   CFC-12 reciprocating chillers-HFC-134a, HCFC-22, HFC-152a,
HCFC-22/HFC-    
    152a/HCFC-124.                                                 
          
   HCFC-22 centrifugal reciprocating, and screw chillers-HFC-134a,
HFC-32,    
    HFC-32/HFC-125, ammonia.                                       
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   HFC-134a screw, HFC-134a centrifugal absorption, lithium bromide
          
    absorption, ammonia-water absorption, HCFC-22 screw, HCFC-22   
          
    reciprocating, HCFC-22 centrifugal.                            
          
Home Heat Pumps and Air Conditioners:                              
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   HFC-134a, HFC-32, HFC-125, HFC-152a, HCFC-124, HFC-143a,
HFC-32/HFC-134a,  
    HFC-32/HFC-152a, HFC-32/HFC-125, HFC-32/HFC-134a/HFC-152a,
HFC-32/HFC-    
    143a, HFC-32/HFC-134a/HFC-152a/HFC-125, propane, butane,
fluoroethers.    
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Lithium bromide absorption, ammonia absorption, evaporative
cooling        
Retail Food Refrigeration:                                         
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   Low temperature-HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-32, HFC-32/HFC-125,
HCFC-22/propane  
    /perfluoropropane, HCFC-22/propane/HFC-125 Medium/high
temperature-HFC-   
    134a, HFC-152a, HCFC-22, HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,
HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-   
    152a, HFC-32/HFC-134a, fluoroethers, butane.                   
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Ammonia/brine system, stirling cycle                            
          
Cold Storage Warehouses:                                           
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   Low temperature-HCFC-22, HFC-125, HFC-32, HFC-32/HFC-125,
HCFC-22/propane  
    /perfluoropropane, HCFC-22/propane/HFC-125, ammonia.           
          
   Medium/high temperature-HFC-134a, HFC-152a,
HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,     
    HFC-32/HFC-125/HFC-152a, HFC-32/HFC-134a, fluoroethers, butane.
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Ammonia/brine system, stirling cycle                            
          
Industrial Process Refrigeration:                                  
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   HCFC-22, HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HCFC-123,
HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124, HCFC-22  
    /HFC-152a/CFC-114 (interim), HFC-32/HFC-125, propane,
cyclopropane,       
    ethane, butane, propylene, ammonia, chlorine.                  
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Ammonia/brine                                                   
          
Refrigerated Transport:                                            
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   HCFC-22, HFC-32, HFC-134a, HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,
HCFC-22/HFC-152a/    
    CFC-114 (interim), propane, cyclopropane, fluoroethers.        
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Stirling cycle, liquid carbon dioxide, nitrogen                 
          
Household Refrigerators and Freezers:                              
          
 a. Chemical substitutes:                                          
          
   HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HCFC-22, HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,
HCFC-22/HCFC-142b, 
    propane, cyclopropane, sulphur dioxide, dimethyl ether,
fluoroethers,     
    ammonia.                                                       
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Stirling cycle, absorption (ammonia-water), Lorenz cycle/near
azeotropic   
    refrigerant mixtures (NARMs), e.g., HCFC-22/HCFC-141b,
HCFC-22/HCFC-123,  
    dual loop cycle/mixtures (e.g., HFC-152a/HCFC-142b).           
          
Other Household Appliances:                                        
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   HFC-134a, HCFC-22, HFC-152a, HCFC-22/HFC-152a/HCFC-124,
HCFC-22/HCFC-142b, 
    propane, cyclopropane, sulphur dioxide, ammonia.               
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Stirling cycle, absorption                                      
          
Solvent Cleaning:                                                  
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-113, MCF):  
   HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HCFC-141b/methanol,
aqueous,  
    hydrocarbon-surfactant, alcohols, hydrocarbons, terpenes,
N-methyl        
    pyrrolidone, esters, ketones, white spirit, perfluoroalkanes,
terpene     
    alcohols, pentafluoropropanol, glycol ethers, petroleum
distillates,      
    glycol ether acetates, fluoroethers, 1,1-dichloroethane,       
          
    perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride.      
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   No-clean fluxes, plasma cleaning, ice particles, thermal vacuum
deoiling,  
    supercritical fluids, controlled atmosphere soldering,
pressurized gases, 
    ultraviolet light/ozone cleaning, low-solid fluxes, no-clean
solder       
    pastes, steam cleaning, solderability preservatives (organic,
polymeric,  
    and metallic), reactive gas soldering, conductive adhesives,
organic      
    acid fluxes.                                                   
          
Sterilization:                                                     
          
 a. Substitutes for CFC-12, currently used as a carrier for
ethylene oxide:   
   HCFC-124, HFC-125, HFC-134a, carbon dioxide, nitrogen           
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Steam, dry heat, pure ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, peracetic
acid,        
    glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide, gaseous ozone, vapor phase
hydrogen     
    peroxide, ionized gas plasma, selective component
sterilization,          
    radiation, disposables.                                        
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane, Flexible Slabstock:                     
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substance
(CFC-11):         
   HCFC-141b, HCFC-123, methylene chloride, increased water,
acetone, methyl  
    chloroform (interim), AB technology, liquid carbon dioxide.    
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   New polyol technologies                                         
          
 c. Alternative products:                                          
          
   Fiberfill, natural latex foams, polyester batting               
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane, Flexible Molded:                        
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substance
(CFC-11):         
   HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, increased water, methylene chloride, methyl
          
    chloroform (interim).                                          
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   New polyol technologies                                         
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane, Rigid Appliance Insulation:             
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-11 and CFC  
  -12):                                                            
          
   HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, HCFC-22, HFC-152a, HFC-134a, HFC-125,
HCFC-123/HCFC-  
    141b, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, carbon dioxide from increased water,
100%       
    carbon dioxide, perfluoroalkanes, fluorinated ethers, pentane, 
          
    isopentane, hexane, partially fluorinated alkanes,
all-water-blown        
    systems, air.                                                  
          
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Fiberglass, vacuum panels                                       
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane/Polyisocyanurate Rigid Laminated
Insulation:        
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-11 and CFC  
  -12):                                                            
          
   HCFC-123, HFC-152a, HFC-125, HCFC-141b, HCFC-22,
HCFC-123/HCFC-141b, HCFC  
    -22/HCFC-142b, 2-chloropropane, perfluoroalkanes, 100% carbon
dioxide,    
    carbon dioxide from increased water, partially fluorinated
alkanes, air.  
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Expanded polystyrene, fiberboard, fiberglass                    
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane Rigid Spray-Applied, Slabstock, and
Poured-in-      
 place:                                                            
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-11 and CFC  
  -12):                                                            
          
   HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, HCFC-22, HFC-152a, HFC-134a,
HCFC-123/HCFC-141b,      
    carbon dioxide from increased water, 100% carbon dioxide
(all-water-      
    blown), pentane, isopentane, partially fluorinated alkanes,
air.          
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Fiberglass, expanded polystyrene, etc.                          
          
Foam Blowing-Polyurethane Integral Skin and Miscellaneous          
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substance
(CFC-11):         
   HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, isopentane, pentane, butane,
methylene       
    chloride, air, water, acetone, partially fluorinated alkanes,  
          
    perfluorinated alkanes.                                        
          
Foam Blowing-Phenolics:                                            
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-11, CFC-    
  113):                                                            
          
   HCFC-141b, HCFC-123, HFC-134a, HFC-152a, HCFC-22/HCFC-142b,
pentane        
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Fiberglass, expanded polystyrene, etc.                          
          
Foam Blowing-Polystyrene Extruded Boardstock                       
          
 a. Substitutes for currently used controlled substances (CFC-12): 
          
   HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HCFC-124, HFC-152a, hydrocarbons  
          
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Expandable polystyrene, fiberboard                              
          
Foam Blowing-Extruded Sheet:                                       
          
 a. Substitutes for currently used controlled substance (HCFC-22)  
          
   HFC-152a, HFC-134a, carbon dioxide, n-pentane, butane,
isopentane,         
    isobutane.                                                     
          
Foam Blowing, Polyolefin:                                          
          
 a. Substitutes for currently used controlled substances (CFC-11,
CFC-12,     
  CFC-114):                                                        
          
   HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-141b, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HFC-134a,
HFC-152a,     
    butane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, ketones, methylene chloride.   
          
 b. Alternative Products:                                          
          
   Paper, cardboard, expanded polystyrene                          
          
Pesticide Formulations:                                            
          
 a. Substitutes for CFC-113 and MCF, controlled substances
currently used as  
  inerts:                                                          
          
   HCFCs, water-based with hydrocarbons, methylene chloride,       
          
    trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene.                          
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Alternative application methods                                 
          
Aerosols/Pressurized Containers:                                   
          
 a. Substitutes for the currently used controlled substances
(CFC-11, CFC-12, 
  CFC-113, CFC-114, MCF):                                          
          
   HFC-125, HCFC-124, HFC-134a, HCFC-123, HCFC-22,
HCFC-123/HCFC-141b, HCFC-  
    22/HCFC-142b, HCFC-22/HFC-152a, water-based formulations,
isopropyl       
    alcohol, methylene chloride, acetone, ethanol, petroleum
distillates,     
    isobutane/propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, compressed air,   
          
    perchloroethylene, propane, isobutane, n-butane, alcohols,
ketones,       
    esters, chlorinated solvents.                                  
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Alternative delivery systems (e.g., pumps and pistons)          
          
Adhesives:                                                         
          
 a. Substitutes for MCF, currently used as a solvent in the
adhesive          
  formulation:                                                     
          
   Petroleum distillates, methylene chloride, ketones, esters,
terpenes,      
    glycol ethers, glycol esters, perchloroethylene, glycol ether
acetates,   
    hydrocarbon solvents, water-based solvents.                    
          
 b. Alternative Technologies:                                      
          
   Hot melt, high-solids, uv-curable                               
          
Coatings and inks:                                                 
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   Petroleum distillates, methylene chloride, ketones, esters,
terpenes,      
    glycol ethers, glycol esters, diluents, terpene alcohols,
binders,        
    perchloroethylene, glycol ether acetates, hydrocarbon solvents.
          
 b. Alternative technologies for current formulations containing
MCF as       
  solvent:                                                         
          
   Water-based formulations, high-solids, high transfer efficiency,
          
    thermoplastics, powder coatings, radiation curing.             
          
Fire Extinguishing:                                                
          
 a. Chemical Substitutes:                                          
          
   Halon 1211-bromodifuoromethane (interim), HCFC-22, HCFC-123,
HFC-23, HCFC  
    -124, HFC-125, HCFC-123/HCFC-142b, HCFC-123/HCFC-22,
HCFC-123/HFC-23,     
    HCFC-123/HCFC-124, heptafluoropropane, heptafluoropropane/     
          
    bromodifluoromethane, water, aqueous film-forming foam, CO2,   
          
    perfluorinated butane, dry chemical.                           
          
   Halon 1301-bromodifluoromethane (interim), HFC-125,
heptafluoropropane,    
    bromodifluoromethane/heptafluoropropane, water, CO2, CO2/water
hybrid,    
    perfluorinated butane.                                         
          
  EPA may evaluate some of the substitutes listed above under its  
          
   Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program. Because this
          
   evaluation is not yet complete, no conclusions should be drawn
about the   
   acceptability of any of these substitutes.                      
          


Appendix A

Section 602: Listing of

Class I and Class II Substances

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

Class I Substances

Group I
chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11)
chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12)
chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113)
chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114)
chlorofluorocarbon-115 (CFC-115)

Group II
halon-1211
halon-1301
halon-2402

Group III
chlorofluorocarbon-13 (CFC-13)
chlorofluorocarbon-111 (CFC-111)
chlorofluorocarbon-112 (CFC-112)
chlorofluorocarbon-211 (CFC-211)
chlorofluorocarbon-212 (CFC-212)
chlorofluorocarbon-213 (CFC-213)
chlorofluorocarbon-214 (CFC-214)
chlorofluorocarbon-215 (CFC-215)
chlorofluorocarbon-216 (CFC-216)
chlorofluorocarbon-217 (CFC-217)

Group IV
carbon tetrachloride

Group V
methyl chloroform

Class II Substances
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-21 (HCFC-21)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-31 (HCFC-31)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-121 (HCFC-121)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-122 (HCFC-122)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC-123)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-124 (HCFC-124)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-131 (HCFC-131)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-132 (HCFC-132)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-133 (HCFC-133)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141 (HCFC-141)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-142 (HCFC-142)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-221 (HCFC-221)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-222 (HCFC-222)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-223 (HCFC-223)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-224 (HCFC-224)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-226 (HCFC-226)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-231 (HCFC-231)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-232 (HCFC-232)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-233 (HCFC-233)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-234 (HCFC-234)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-235 (HCFC-235)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-241 (HCFC-241)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-242 (HCFC-242)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-243 (HCFC-243)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-244 (HCFC-244)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-251 (HCFC-251)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-252 (HCFC-252)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-253 (HCFC-253)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-261 (HCFC-261)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-262 (HCFC-262)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-271 (HCFC-271)

[FR Doc. 92-942 Filed 1-15-92; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-M

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