Emissions of Substitutes for Ozone Depleting Substances
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The emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) used as substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODS) are rising worldwide. The U.S. EPA and various industries are working together to measure, manage and reduce these emissions. Several analyses are provided and many voluntary EPA/industry partnerships have been started.
The emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) used as substitutes for ozone depleting substances are rising worldwide. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, many nations including the U.S. annually submit greenhouse gas emission inventories that estimate emissions of these and other greenhouse gases. The U.S. EPA has also made estimates of HFC and PFC emissions globally, and has analyzed opportunities and costs to reduce those emissions. The original study has been revised and incorporated into reports analyzing global emissions and mitigation potentials of all non-CO2 greenhouse gases.
Others have performed similar analyses, and a partial list of these studies is provided below. Researchers will see that different analyses can lead to vastly different estimates of current and future emissions, depending upon the data used and methodologies employed.
U.S. EPA Reports
- Global Anthropogenic Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases 1990-2020 (EPA Report 430-R-06-003) . This report provides historical and projected estimates of emissions from over 90 countries and 8 regions for all major non-CO2 greenhouse gas emission sources. The baseline emission estimates of HFCs and PFCs used as ODS substitutes have been updated from the 2004 report cited below.
- Global Mitigation of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (EPA Report 430-R-06-005). This report provides marginal abatement curves (MACs) that reflect aggregated breakeven prices for implementing mitigation options in a given sector and region. The options evaluated for mitigating emissions of ozone-depleting substance substitutes have been updated from the 2004 report cited below.
- Analysis of Costs to Abate International Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substance (ODS) Substitute Emissions (EPA Report 430-R-04-006) (PDF, 142 pp, 669 KB). This report presents the U.S. EPA's baseline forecast of emissions of Hydrofluorocarbon and Perfluorocarbon gases from the major sectors that use these gases as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances, and EPA's cost estimates of reducing these emissions. Appendices (PDF, 167 pp, 1 MB); Errata Sheet (PDF, 9 pp, 119 KB).
- Ashford, P., D. Clodic, L. Palandre, A. McCulloch and L. Kuijpers, Determination of Comparative HCFC and HFC Emission Profiles for the Foam and Refrigeration Sectors until 2015, report prepared with support from U.S. EPA and ADEME, April 2004. Part 1 (PDF, 32 pp., 1.2 MB), Part 2 (PDF, 43 pp., 559 KB), Part 3 (PDF, 38 pp., 472 KB)
- Enviros Consulting Ltd., 2003: Assessment of the costs & implication on emission of potential regulatory frameworks for reducing emissions of HFCs, PFCs & SF6 , Enviros Consulting Ltd. Report CAN EC002 5008, circa 2003.
- Harnisch, Jochen and Chris Hendriks, 2000: Economic Evaluation of Emission Reductions of HFCs, PFCs and SF 6 in Europe, Special Report, Contribution to the study “Economic Evaluation of Sectoral Emission Reduction Objectives for Climate Change”, on behalf of the Commission of the European Union, Directorate General Environment, Ecofys Energy and Environment, April 25, 2000.
- Harnisch, Jochen, Oliver Stobbe and David de Jager, 2001: Abatement of Emissions of Other Greenhouse Gases: “Engineered Chemicals”, February 2001, IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme, m754, Ecofys, PO Box 8408, 3503 RK Utrecht, The Netherlands.
- March Consulting Group, 1998: Opportunities to Minimise Emissions of Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) from the European Union , Final Report, Prepared by March Consulting Group, UK, 30 September 1998.
- Schaefer, Deborah Ottinger, Dave Godwin and Jochen Harnisch, 2006: Estimating Future Emissions and Potential Reductions of HFCs, PFCs and SF6, Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy, A Special Issue of The Energy Journal. de la Chesnaye, Francisco C. and John P. Weyant, guest editors, 2006.