FACT SHEET: Final Rulemaking Listing R-744 as an Alternative for the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector
- Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program, EPA is listing carbon dioxide (CO2, R-744) as an acceptable substitute for ozone-depleting substances in motor vehicle air conditioning (MVAC) systems subject to use conditions necessary for its safe use. This alternative, when used in accordance with the use conditions and industry standards specified in this rule, will result in lower overall risks to human health and the environment from direct refrigerant emissions than currently available refrigerants for this end-use. By approving this alternative subject to use conditions under SNAP, the motor vehicle industry will have another choice for use in new MVAC systems. Vehicle manufacturers who choose to adopt this alternative refrigerant must follow the conditions required for its safe use.
- CO2 does not harm the ozone layer and has significantly lower climate impacts than the current MVAC refrigerant, HFC-134a. CO2 has a global warming potential (GWP) of 1, whereas HFC-134a has a GWP of 1,430. The use of CO2 can reduce climate impacts due to direct refrigerant emissions from MVAC by 99.9 percent.
- This rule includes references to global technical standards developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) International specifying how CO2 should be safely deployed in MVAC systems.
For Further Information
- Additional information on motor vehicle air conditioning refrigerants can be found here or by contacting Yaidi Cancelof EPA's Office of Atmospheric Programs at (202) 343-9512.