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Section 402
Definitions
[42 U.S.C. 7651a]

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As used in this title:

(1) The term 'affected source' means a source that includes one or more affected units.

(2) The term 'affected unit' means a unit that is subject to emission reduction requirements or limitations under this title.

(3) The term 'allowance' means an authorization, allocated to an affected unit by the Administrator under this title, to emit, during or after a specified calendar year, one ton of sulfur dioxide.

(4) The term 'baseline' means the annual quantity of fossil fuel consumed by an affected unit, measured in millions of British Thermal Units ('mmBtus'), calculated as follows:

(A) For each utility unit that was in commercial operation prior to January 1, 1985, the baseline shall be the annual average quantity of mmBtu's consumed in fuel during calendar years 1985, 1986, and 1987, as recorded by the Department of Energy pursuant to Form 767. For any utility unit for which such form was not filed, the baseline shall be the level specified for such unit in the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) Emissions Inventory, Version 2, National Utility Reference File (NURF) or in a corrected data base as established by the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (3). For non-utility units, the baseline is the NAPAP Emissions Inventory, Version 2. The Administrator, in the Administrator's sole discretion, may exclude periods during which a unit is shutdown for a continuous period of four calendar months or longer, and make appropriate adjustments under this paragraph. Upon petition of the owner or operator of any unit, the Administrator may make appropriate baseline adjustments for accidents that caused prolonged outages.

(B) For any other nonutility unit that is not included in the NAPAP Emissions Inventory, Version 2, or a corrected data base as established by the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (3), the baseline shall be the annual average quantity, in mmBtu consumed in fuel by that unit, as calculated pursuant to a method which the administrator shall prescribe by regulation to be promulgated not later than eighteen months after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

(C) The Administrator shall, upon application or on his own motion, by December 31, 1991, supplement data needed in support of this title and correct any factual errors in data from which affected Phase II units' baselines or actual 1985 emission rates have been calculated. Corrected data shall be used for purposes of issuing allowances under the title. Such corrections shall not be subject to judicial review, nor shall the failure of the Administrator to correct an alleged factual error in such reports be subject to judicial review.

(5) The term 'capacity factor' means the ratio between the actual electric output from a unit and the potential electric output from that unit.

(6) The term 'compliance plan' means, for purposes of the requirements of this title, either-

(A) a statement that the source will comply with all applicable requirements under this title, or

(B) where applicable, a schedule and description of the method or methods for compliance and certification by the owner or operator that the source is in compliance with the requirements of this title.

(7) The term 'continuous emission monitoring system' (CEMS) means the equipment as required by section 412, used to sample, analyze, measure, and provide on a continuous basis a permanent record of emissions and flow (expressed in pounds per million British thermal units (lbs/mmBtu), pounds per hour (lbs/hr) or such other form as the Administrator may prescribe by regulations under section 412).

(8) The term 'existing unit' means a unit (including units subject to section 111) that commenced commercial operation before the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Any unit that commenced commercial operation before the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 which is modified, reconstructed, or repowered after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 shall continue to be an existing unit for the purposes of this title. For the purposes of this title, existing units shall not include simple combustion turbines, or units which serve a generator with a nameplate capacity of 25MWe or less.

(9) The term 'generator' means a device that produces electricity and which is reported as a generating unit pursuant to Department of Energy Form 860.

(10) The term 'new unit' means a unit that commences commercial operation on or after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

(11) The term 'permitting authority' means the Administrator, or the State or local air pollution control agency, with an approved permitting program under part B of title III of the Act.

(12) The term 'repowering' means replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one of the following clean coal technologies: atmospheric or pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, magnetohydrodynamics, direct and indirect coal-fired turbines, integrated gasification fuel cells, or as determined by the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, a derivative of one or more of these technologies, and any other technology capable of controlling multiple combustion emissions simultaneously with improved boiler or generation efficiency and with significantly greater waste reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread commercial use as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 409(a), for the purpose of this title, the term 'repowering' shall also include any oil and/or gas-fired unit which has been awarded clean coal technology demonstration funding as of January 1, 1991, by the Department of Energy.

(13) The term 'reserve' means any bank of allowances established by the Administrator under this title.

(14) The term 'State' means one of the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia.

(15) The term 'unit' means a fossil fuel-fired combustion device.

(16) The term 'actual 1985 emission rate', for electric utility units means the annual sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides emission rate in pounds per million Btu as reported in the NAPAP Emissions Inventory, Version 2, National Utility Reference File. For nonutility units, the term 'actual 1985 emission rate' means the annual sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides emission rate in pounds per million Btu as reported in the NAPAP Emission Inventory, Version 2.

(17)(A) The term 'utility unit' means-

(i) a unit that serves a generator in any State that produces electricity for sale, or

(ii) a unit that, during 1985, served a generator in any State that produced electricity for sale.

(B) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a unit described in subparagraph (A) that-

(i) was in commercial operation during 1985, but

(ii) did not, during 1985, serve a generator in any State that produced electricity for sale shall not be a utility unit for purposes of this title.

(C) A unit that cogenerates steam and electricity is not a 'utility unit' for purposes of this title unless the unit is constructed for the purpose of supplying, or commences construction after the date of enactment of this title and supplies, more than one-third of its potential electric output capacity and more than 25 megawatts electrical output to any utility power distribution system for sale.

(18) The term 'allowable 1985 emissions rate' means a federally enforceable emissions limitation for sulfur dioxide or oxides of nitrogen, applicable to the unit in 1985 or the limitation applicable in such other subsequent year as determined by the Administrator if such a limitation for 1985 does not exist. Where the emissions limitation for a unit is not expressed in pounds of emissions per million Btu, or the averaging period of that emissions limitation is not expressed on an annual basis, the Administrator shall calculate the annual equivalent of that emissions limitation in pounds per million Btu to establish the allowable 1985 emissions rate.

(19) The term 'qualifying phase I technology' means a technological system of continuous emission reduction which achieves a 90 percent reduction in emissions of sulfur dioxide from the emissions that would have resulted from the use of fuels which were not subject to treatment prior to combustion.

(20) The term 'alternative method of compliance' means a method of compliance in accordance with one or more of the following authorities:

(A) a substitution plan submitted and approved in accordance with subsections 404 (b) and (c);

(B) a Phase I extension plan approved by the Administrator under section 404(d), using qualifying phase I technology as determined by the Administrator in accordance with that section; or

(C) repowering with a qualifying clean coal technology under section 409.

(21) The term 'commenced' as applied to construction of any new electric utility unit means that an owner or operator has undertaken a continuous program of construction or that an owner or operator has entered into a contractual obligation to undertake and complete, within a reasonable time, a continuous program of construction.

(22) The term 'commenced commercial operation' means to have begun to generate electricity for sale.

(23) The term 'construction' means fabrication, erection, or installation of an affected unit.

(24) The term 'industrial source' means a unit that does not serve a generator that produces electricity, a 'nonutility unit' as defined in this section, or a process source as defined in section 410(e).

(25) The term 'nonutility unit' means a unit other than a utility unit.

(26) The term 'designated representative' means a responsible person or official authorized by the owner or operator of a unit to represent the owner or operator in matters pertaining to the holding, transfer, or disposition of allowances allocated to a unit, and the submission of and compliance with permits, permit applications, and compliance plans for the unit.

(27) The term 'life-of-the-unit, firm power contractual arrangement' means a unit participation power sales agreement under which a utility or industrial customer reserves, or is entitled to receive, a specified amount or percentage of capacity and associated energy generated by a specified generating unit (or units) and pays its proportional amount of such unit's total costs, pursuant to a contract either-

(A) for the life of the unit;

(B) for a cumulative term of no less than 30 years, including contracts that permit an election for early termination; or

(C) for a period equal to or greater than 25 years or 70 percent of the economic useful life of the unit determined as of the time the unit was built, with option rights to purchase or re-lease some portion of the capacity and associated energy generated by the unit (or units) at the end of the period.

(28) The term 'basic Phase II allowance allocations' means:

(A) For calendar years 2000 through 2009 inclusive, allocations of allowances made by the Administrator pursuant to section 403 and subsections (b)(1), (3), and (4); (c)(1), (2), (3), and (5); (d)(1), (2), (4), and (5); (e); (f); (g)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5); (h)(1); (i) and (j) of section 405.

(B) For each calendar year beginning in 2010, allocations of allowances made by the Administrator pursuant to section 403 and subsections (b)(1), (3), and (4); (c)(1), (2), (3), and (5); (d)(1), (2), (4) and (5); (e); (f); (g)(1), (2), (3), (4), and (5); (h)(1) and (3); (i) and (j) of section 405.

(29) The term 'Phase II bonus allowance allocations' means, for calendar year 2000 through 2009, inclusive, and only for such years, allocations made by the Administrator pursuant to section 403, subsections (a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(4), (d)(3) (except as otherwise provided therein), and (h)(2) of section 405, and section 406

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