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Combined Heat and Power Partnership

Portfolio Standards

Key Resources

States can use portfolio standards to increase the adoption of renewable energy generation, energy efficiency, and other clean energy technologies such as CHP.

Types of Portfolio Standards

There are three main types of portfolio standards:

  • Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) or Clean Energy Standards (CES) are portfolio standards designed to increase the contribution of renewable energy and clean energy to the electric supply mix. They are focused on typical renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, biomass and on clean energy technologies such as CHP. Some states maintain a broad RPS definition under which renewably-fueled CHP systems qualify.
  • Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS) are designed to meet an energy savings goal through energy efficiency. They are intended to encourage more efficient generation and transmission by electric and gas utilities. They are usually focused on end-use energy savings but some include other efficiency measures, such as, CHP, or other high efficiency distributed generation, or distribution system improvements.
  • Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards (APS) are hybrid standards developed to allow energy efficiency to qualify within a RPS or a CES and do so either through targets for a certain percentage of a supplier's capacity (MW) or generation (MWh) to come from sources such as CHP, coal with carbon capture and storage, or waste-to-energy projects using municipal solid waste.

Status of Portfolio Standards with CHP

As of December 2012, some form of portfolio standards had been established in 42 states and the District of Columbia. Out of these states, 26—Arizona, Connecticut, Delaware, Colorado, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington and West Virginia—specifically call out CHP and/or waste heat-to-power (WHP) as eligible under their RPS, EERS, or APS program guidelines.

The maps below show the status of portfolio standards in the United States. A summary of CHP eligibility in state portfolio standards can be viewed here (PDF) (14 pp, 105 KB).

States with RPS, CES, and APS Programs for CHP (March 2013)

Source: ICF International, C2ES, and the DSIRE database.
Source: ICF International, C2ES, and the DSIRE database.

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States with EERS Programs for CHP (March 2013)

Source: ICF International, C2ES, and the DSIRE database.
Source: ICF International, C2ES, and the DSIRE database.

High-Resolution Image >>

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