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Climate Change

Climate Change Indicators in the United States


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Greenhouse Gases

Chapter Introduction

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1995. Climate change 1995: The science of climate change (Second Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  1. U.S. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2013. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2011. USEPA #EPA 430-R-13-001. www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/usinventoryreport.html.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.
  6. ibid.

Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  1. World Resources Institute. 2012. Climate Analysis Indicators Tool (CAIT). Version 9.0. Accessed May 2012. http://cait.wri.org.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.

Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  2. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis report (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  3. ibid.
  4. EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 647,426 BC to 411,548 BC
    Siegenthaler, U., T. F. Stocker, E. Monnin, D. Lüthi, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, D. Raynaud, J.M. Barnola, H. Fischer, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel. 2005. Stable carbon cycle-climate relationship during the late Pleistocene. Science 310(5752):1313–1317. Accessed May 15, 2007. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/edc-co2-650k-390k.txt.

    Vostok Station, Antarctica: approximately 415,157 BC to 339 BC
    Barnola, J.M., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, and N.I. Barkov. 2003. Historical CO2 record from the Vostok ice core. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/vostok.html.

    EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 9002 BC to 1515 AD
    Flückiger, J., E. Monnin, B. Stauffer, J. Schwander, T.F. Stocker, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud, and J.M. Barnola. 2002. High resolution Holocene N2O ice core record and its relationship with CH4 and CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16(1):10–11. Accessed April 30, 2007. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/readme_flueckiger2002.txt.

    Law Dome, Antarctica, 75-year smoothed: approximately 1010 AD to 1975 AD
    Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.M. Barnola, and V.I. Morgan. 1998. Historical CO2 records from the Law Dome DE08, DE08-2, and DSS ice cores. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lawdome.html.

    Siple Station, Antarctica: approximately 1744 AD to 1953 AD
    Neftel, A., H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Lötscher, H. Oeschger, U. Siegenthaler, and B. Stauffer. 1994. Historical CO2 record from the Siple Station ice core. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/siple.html.

    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1959 AD to 2012 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Annual mean CO2 concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Accessed May 24, 2013. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/trends/co2_annmean_mlo.txt.

    Barrow, Alaska: 1974 AD to 2011 AD
    Cape Matatula, American Samoa: 1976 AD to 2011 AD

    South Pole, Antarctica: 1976 AD to 2011 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. Monthly mean CO2 concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Cape Matatula, American Samoa; and the South Pole. Accessed May 10, 2012. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/co2/in-situ.


    Cape Grim, Australia: 1992 AD to 2006 AD
    Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 AD to 2002 AD
    Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2007. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ppmv) derived from flask air samples collected at Cape Grim, Australia, and Shetland Islands, Scotland. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Accessed January 20, 2009. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/ftp/trends/co2/csiro.

    Lampedusa Island, Italy: 1993 AD to 2000 AD
    Chamard, P., L. Ciattaglia, A. di Sarra, and F. Monteleone. 2001. Atmospheric CO2 record from flask measurements at Lampedusa Island. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 14, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/co2/lampis.html.

  5. EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 646,729 BC to 1888 AD
    Spahni, R., J. Chappellaz, T.F. Stocker, L. Loulergue, G. Hausammann, K. Kawamura, J. Flückiger, J. Schwander, D. Raynaud, V. Masson-Delmotte, and J. Jouzel. 2005. Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science 310(5752):1317–1321. Accessed May 15, 2007. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/edc-ch4-2005-650k.txt.

    Vostok Station, Antarctica: approximately 415,172 BC to 346 BC
    Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399:429–436. Accessed April 24, 2007. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/vostok/ch4nat.txt.

    Greenland GISP2 ice core: approximately 87,798 BC to 8187 BC
    Byrd Station, Antarctica: approximately 85,929 BC to 6748 BC
    Greenland GRIP ice core: approximately 46,933 BC to 8129 BC
    Blunier, T., and E.J. Brook. 2001. Timing of millenial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period. Science 291:109–112. Accessed September 13, 2005. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/greenland/summit/grip/synchronization/readme_blunier2001.txt.

    EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 8945 BC to 1760 AD
    Flückiger, J., E. Monnin, B. Stauffer, J. Schwander, T.F. Stocker, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud, and J.M. Barnola. 2002. High resolution Holocene N2O ice core record and its relationship with CH4 and CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16(1):10–11. Accessed April 24, 2007. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/readme_flueckiger2002.txt.

    Law Dome, Antarctica: approximately 1008 AD to 1980 AD
    Various Greenland locations: approximately 1075 AD to 1885 AD
    Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.J. Francey, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Historical CH4 records since about 1000 AD from ice core data. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. Accessed September 13, 2005. http://cdiac.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/lawdome_meth.html.

    Greenland Site J: approximately 1598 AD to 1951 AD
    WDCGG (World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases). 2006. Atmospheric CH4 concentrations for Greenland Site J. Accessed May 30, 2013. http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/gmd/wdcgg/cgi-bin/wdcgg/catalogue.cgi.

    Cape Grim, Australia: 1984 AD to 2011 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Cape Grim, Australia. Accessed May 30, 2013. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/ch4/flask/month/ch4_cgo_surface-flask_1_ccgg_month.txt.

    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 1987 AD to 2012 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Monthly mean CH4 concentrations for Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Accessed May 30, 2013. ftp://ftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/ccg/ch4/in-situ/mlo/ch4_mlo_surface-insitu_1_ccgg_month.txt.

    Shetland Islands, Scotland: 1993 AD to 2001 AD
    Steele, L.P., P.B. Krummel, and R.L. Langenfelds. 2002. Atmospheric CH4 concentrations from sites in the CSIRO Atmospheric Research GASLAB air sampling network (October 2002 version). In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Oak Ridge, TN: U.S. Department of Energy. http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/atm_meth/csiro/csiro-shetlandch4.html.

  6. Greenland GISP2 ice core: approximately 104,301 BC to 1871 AD
    Taylor Dome, Antarctica: approximately 30,697 BC to 497 BC
    Sowers, T., R.B. Alley, and J. Jubenville. 2003. Ice core records of atmospheric N2O covering the last 106,000 years. Science 301(5635):945–948. Accessed September 14, 2005. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/taylor/taylor_n2o.txt.

    EPICA Dome C, Antarctica: approximately 9000 BC to 1780 AD
    Flückiger, J., E. Monnin, B. Stauffer, J. Schwander, T.F. Stocker, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud, and J.M. Barnola. 2002. High resolution Holocene N2O ice core record and its relationship with CH4 and CO2. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16(1):10–11. Accessed September 14, 2005. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/antarctica/epica_domec/readme_flueckiger2002.txt.

    Antarctica: approximately 1756 AD to 1964 AD
    Machida, T., T. Nakazawa, Y. Fujii, S. Aoki, and O. Watanabe. 1995. Increase in the atmospheric nitrous oxide concentration during the last 250 years. Geophys. Res. Lett. 22(21):2921–2924. Accessed September 8, 2005. ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/global_climate/global_N_cycle/data/global_N_perturbations.txt.

    Antarctica: approximately 1903 AD to 1976 AD
    Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P. Tans, J. Butler, J. Elkins, J. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A. Clarke. 1996. Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole. Nature 383:231–235. Accessed September 8, 2005. ftp://daac.ornl.gov/data/global_climate/global_N_cycle/data/global_N_perturbations.txt.

    Cape Grim, Australia: 1979 AD to 2011 AD
    AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2012. Monthly mean N2O concentrations for Cape Grim, Australia. Accessed May 31, 2013. http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/gmd/wdcgg/cgi-bin/wdcgg/catalogue.cgi.

    South Pole, Antarctica: 1998 AD to 2012 AD
    Barrow, Alaska: 1999 AD to 2012 AD
    Mauna Loa, Hawaii: 2000 AD to 2012 AD
    NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Monthly mean N2O concentrations for Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and the South Pole. Accessed May 31, 2013. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/insitu/cats/cats_conc.html.

  7. AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2013. ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data base. Accessed July 2013. http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/data.htm.
  8. Arnold, T. 2013 update to data originally published in: Arnold, T., C.M. Harth, J. Mühle, A.J. Manning, P.K. Salameh, J. Kim, D.J. Ivy, L.P. Steele, V.V. Petrenko, J.P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, and R.F. Weiss. 2013. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements. PNAS 110(6):2029-2034. Data updated May 2013.
  9. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Halocarbons and other atmospheric trace species. Accessed July 2013. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats.
  10. AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment). 2013. ALE/GAGE/AGAGE data base. Accessed July 2013. http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/data.htm.
  11. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Halocarbons and other atmospheric trace species. Accessed July 2013. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats.
  12. Arnold, T. 2013 update to data originally published in: Arnold, T., C.M. Harth, J. Mühle, A.J. Manning, P.K. Salameh, J. Kim, D.J. Ivy, L.P. Steele, V.V. Petrenko, J.P. Severinghaus, D. Baggenstos, and R.F. Weiss. 2013. Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements. PNAS 110(6):2029-2034. Data updated May 2013.
  13. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis report (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Climate Forcing

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index. Accessed October 2012. www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi.

Weather and Climate

U.S. and Global Temperature

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. National Climatic Data Center. Accessed April 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.

High and Low Temperatures

  1. Karl, T.R., J.M. Melillo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). 2009. Global climate change impacts in the United States. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  2. National Research Council. 2011. Climate stabilization targets: Emissions, concentrations, and impacts over decades to millennia. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  3. Meehl, G.A., T.F. Stocker, W.D. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A.T. Gaye, J.M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J.M. Murphy, A. Noda, S.C.B. Raper, I.G. Watterson, A.J. Weaver, and Z.-C. Zhao. 2007. Global climate projections. In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  4. CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/sap3-3-final-Chapter2.pdf.
  5. Kunkel, K. 2013. Updated version of a figure that originally appeared in U.S. Climate Change Science Program’s 2008 report: Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/sap3-3-final-Chapter2.pdf.
  6. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed October 2012. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  7. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed May 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  8. Meehl, G. A., C. Tebaldi, G. Walton, D. Easterling, and L. McDaniel. 2009. Relative increase of record high maximum temperatures compared to record low minimum temperatures in the U.S. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L23701.
  9. ibid.

U.S. and Global Precipitation

  1. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. National Climatic Data Center. Accessed April 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.

Heavy Precipitation

  1. Tebaldi, C., K. Hayhoe, J.M. Arblaster, and G.A. Meehl. 2006. Going to the extremes: An intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events. Climatic Change 79:185–211.
  2. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. National Climatic Data Center. Personal communication: Analysis by Derek Arndt, April 2012.
  3. CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/sap3-3-final-Chapter2.pdf.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. U.S. Climate Extremes Index. Accessed March 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/extremes/cei.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Standardized Precipitation Index data files. Accessed March 2013. ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/cirs.

Drought

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2012. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX.
  2. Heim, R.R. 2002. A review of twentieth-century drought indices used in the United States. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 83(8):1149–1165.
  3. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. State of the climate: Drought: December 2012. Accessed July 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/sotc/drought/2012/12.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. National Climatic Data Center. Accessed March 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html.
  5. National Drought Mitigation Center. 2013. Drought Monitor archives. Accessed March 2013. http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/DataArchive/Tables.aspx.

Tropical Cyclone Activity

  1. CCSP (U.S. Climate Change Science Program). 2008. Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3: Weather and climate extremes in a changing climate. www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap3-3/final-report/sap3-3-final-Chapter2.pdf.
  2. ibid.
  3. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2012. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX.
  4. ibid.
  5. Knutson, T.R. 2012 update to data originally published in: Knutson, T.R., J.L. McBride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J.P. Kossin, A.K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geosci. 3:157–163.
  6. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. The 2011 North Atlantic hurricane season: A climate perspective. www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/expert_assessment/hurrsummary_2011.pdf.
  7. Emanuel, K.A. 2012 update to data originally published in: Emanuel, K.A. 2007. Environmental factors affecting tropical cyclone power dissipation. J. Climate 20(22):5497–5509.
  8. Knutson, T.R., J.L. McBride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J.P. Kossin, A.K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geosci. 3:157–163.

Oceans

Chapter Introduction

  1. Khatiwala, S., F. Primeau, and T. Hall. 2009. Reconstruction of the history of anthropogenic CO2 concentrations in the ocean. Nature 462:346–349.

Ocean Heat

  1. Levitus, S., J. Antonov, and T. Boyer. 2005. Warming of the world ocean, 1955–2003. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L02604.
  2. ibid.
  3. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2013. Data downloads: Global mean thermosteric sea level (GThSL) and global ocean heat content (GOHC) timeseries for the upper 700m. Accessed July 2013. www.cmar.csiro.au/sealevel/thermal_expansion_ocean_heat_timeseries.html.
  4. MRI/JMA (Meteorological Research Institute/Japan Meteorological Agency). 2013 update to data originally published in: Ishii, M., and M. Kimoto. 2009. Reevaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. J. Oceanogr. 65:287–299.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Global ocean heat and salt content. Accessed July 2013. www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/3M_HEAT_CONTENT.

Sea Surface Temperature

  1. For example, see Ostrander, G.K., K.M. Armstrong, E.T. Knobbe, D. Gerace, and E.P. Scully. 2000. Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community: The effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 97(10):5297–5302.
  2. Pratchett, M.S., S.K. Wilson, M.L. Berumen, and M.I. McCormick. 2004. Sublethal effects of coral bleaching on an obligate coral feeding butterflyfish. Coral Reefs 23(3):352–356.
  3. Trenberth, K.E., P.D. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, D. Parker, F. Rahimzadeh, J.A. Renwick, M. Rusticucci, B. Soden, and P. Zhai. 2007. Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013. Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (ERSST.v3b). National Climatic Data Center. Accessed February 2013. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ersst.
  5. UK Met Office. 2012. Hadley Centre, HadISST 1.1: Global sea ice coverage and sea surface temperature (1870-present). NCAS British Atmospheric Data Centre. Accessed May 2012. http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/view/badc.nerc.ac.uk__ATOM__dataent_hadisst.

Sea Level

  1. Titus, J.G., E.K. Anderson, D.R. Cahoon, S. Gill, R.E. Thieler, and J.S. Williams. 2009. Coastal sensitivity to sea-level rise: A focus on the Mid-Atlantic region. U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. www.climatescience.gov/Library/sap/sap4-1/final-report/default.htm.
  2. University of Colorado at Boulder. 2012. Sea level change: 2012 release #2. Accessed May 2012. http://sealevel.colorado.edu.
  3. CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation). 2012 update to data originally published in: Church, J.A., and N.J. White. 2011. Sea-level rise from the late 19th to the early 21st century. Surv. Geophys. 32:585–602.
  4. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2012. Laboratory for Satellite Altimetry: Sea level rise. Accessed May 2012. http://ibis.grdl.noaa.gov/SAT/SeaLevelRise/LSA_SLR_timeseries_global.php.
  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2013 update to data originally published in: NOAA. 2001. Sea level variations of the United States 1854–1999. NOAA Technical Report NOS CO-OPS 36. http://tidesandcurrents.noaa.gov/publications/techrpt36.pdf.

Ocean Acidity

  1. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Wootton, J.T., C.A. Pfister, and J.D. Forester. 2008. Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105(48):18848–18853.
  3. Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  4. Bates, N.R., M.H.P. Best, K. Neely, R. Garley, A.G. Dickson, and R.J. Johnson. 2012. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences Discuss. 9:989–1019.
  5. González-Dávila, M. 2012 update to data originally published in: González-Dávila, M., J.M. Santana-Casiano, M.J. Rueda, and O. Llinás. 2010. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences Discuss. 7:1995–2032.
  6. University of Hawaii. 2012. Hawaii Ocean Time-Series. Accessed June 2012. http://hahana.soest.hawaii.edu/hot/products/HOT_surface_CO2.txt.
  7. Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  8. Recreated from Environment Canada. 2008. The pH scale. www.ec.gc.ca/eau-water/default.asp?lang=En&n=FDF30C16-1.
  9. Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4):36–47.
  10. ibid.
  11. Bates, N.R., M.H.P. Best, K. Neely, R. Garley, A.G. Dickson, and R.J. Johnson. 2012. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences Discuss. 9:989–1019.
  12. González-Dávila, M., J.M. Santana-Casiano, M.J. Rueda, and O. Llinás. 2010. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004. Biogeosciences Discuss. 7:1995–2032.
  13. Dore, J.E., R. Lukas, D.W. Sadler, M.J. Church, and D.M. Karl. 2009. Physical and biogeochemical modulation of ocean acidification in the central North Pacific. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:12235–12240.

Snow and Ice

Chapter Introduction

  1. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2007. Global outlook for ice and snow. Cartographer: Hugo Ahlenius, UNEP/GRID-Arendal. www.unep.org/geo/geo_ice.

    Map based on the following data sources:

    Armstrong, R.L., and M.J. Brodzik. 2005. Northern Hemisphere EASE-Grid weekly snow cover and sea ice extent version 3. National Snow and Ice Data Center.

    Armstrong, R.L., M.J. Brodzik, K. Knowles, and M. Savoie. 2005. Global monthly EASE-Grid snow water equivalent climatology. National Snow and Ice Data Center.

    Brown, J., O.J. Ferrians, Jr., J.A. Heginbottom, and E.S. Melnikov. 2001. Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology.

    National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. 2000. Vector map level 0. http://geoengine.nima.mil/ftpdir/archive/vpf_data/v0soa.tar.gz.

    Stroeve, J., and W. Meier. 2005. Sea ice trends and climatologies from SMMR and SSM/I. National Snow and Ice Data Center. http://nsidc.org/data/smmr_ssmi_ancillary/monthly_means.html.

Arctic Sea Ice

  1. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2012. Arctic sea ice news and analysis. http://nsidc.org/icelights/arctic-sea-ice.
  2. Comiso, J. 2012. Large decadal decline of the Arctic multiyear ice cover. J. Climate 25(4):1176–1193.
  3. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2012. Archived monthly sea ice data and images. Accessed October 2012. http://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/archives/index.html.
  4. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2012. Arctic sea ice news and analysis. October 2, 2012. http://nsidc.org/arcticseaicenews/2012/10/poles-apart-a-record-breaking-summer-and-winter.
  5. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). 2012. Sea ice yearly minimum 1979–2011. NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio. Supplemented by personal communication with NASA in November 2012 to obtain a draft image for 2012. http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003800/a003893.

Glaciers

  1. National Research Council. 2011. Climate stabilization targets: Emissions, concentrations, and impacts over decades to millennia. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  2. Lemke, P., J. Ren, R.B. Alley, I. Allison, J. Carrasco, G. Flato, Y. Fujii, G. Kaser, P. Mote, R.H. Thomas, and T. Zhang. 2007. Observations: Changes in snow, ice and frozen ground. In: Climate change 2007: The physical science basis (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  3. WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service). 2011. Glacier mass balance bulletin no. 11 (2008–2009). Zemp, M., S.U. Nussbaumer, I. Gärtner-Roer, M. Hoelzle, F. Paul, and W. Haeberli (eds.). ICSU(WDS)/IUGG(IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO. Zurich, Switzerland: World Glacier Monitoring Service. www.wgms.ch/mbb/mbb11/wgms_2011_gmbb11.pdf.
  4. WGMS (World Glacier Monitoring Service). 2012. Preliminary glacier mass balance data 2009/2010. www.wgms.ch/mbb/sum10.html.
  5. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2012. Water resources of Alaska—glacier and snow program, benchmark glaciers. Accessed June 2012. http://ak.water.usgs.gov/glaciology.
  6. Post, A. 1958. McCall Glacier. Glacier photograph collection. Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. http://nsidc.org/data/g00472.html.
  7. Nolan, M. 2003. McCall Glacier. Glacier photograph collection. Boulder, Colorado: National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology. http://nsidc.org/data/g00472.html.
  8. GCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2009. Global climate change impacts in the United States. www.globalchange.gov/what-we-do/assessment/previous-assessments/global-climate-change-impacts-in-the-us-2009.

Lake Ice

  1. Magnuson, J.J., D.M. Robertson, B.J. Benson, R.H. Wynne, D.M. Livingstone, T. Arai, R.A. Assel, R.G. Barry, V. Card, E. Kuusisto, N.G. Granin, T.D. Prowse, K.M. Stewart, and V.S. Vuglinski. 2000. Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289:1743–1746. Errata 2001. Science 291:254.
  2. NSIDC (National Snow and Ice Data Center). 2011. Global lake and river ice phenology. Internal development version accessed by NSIDC staff, December 2011. http://nsidc.org/data/lake_river_ice.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.

Snowfall

  1. Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, K. Redmond, and D. Easterling. 2009. Trends in twentieth-century U.S. snowfall using a quality-controlled dataset. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 26:33–44.
  2. Feng, S. 2012 update to data originally published in: Feng, S., and Q. Hu. 2007. Changes in winter snowfall/precipitation ratio in the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D15109.
  3. Kunkel, K.E., M. Palecki, L. Ensor, K.G. Hubbard, D. Robinson, K. Redmond, and D. Easterling. 2009. Trends in twentieth-century U.S. snowfall using a quality-controlled dataset. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology 26:33–44.
  4. ibid.
  5. Feng, S., and Q. Hu. 2007. Changes in winter snowfall/precipitation ratio in the contiguous United States. Journal of Geophysical Research 112:D15109.

Snow Cover

  1. Rutgers University Global Snow Lab. 2013. Area of extent data: North America (no Greenland). Accessed February 2013. http://climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover.
  2. Rutgers University Global Snow Lab. 2013. Area of extent data: North America (no Greenland). Accessed February 2013. http://climate.rutgers.edu/snowcover.

Snowpack

  1. Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 86(1):39–49.
  2. Mote, P.W. 2009 update to data originally published in: Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 86(1):39–49.
  3. Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2005. Declining mountain snowpack in Western North America. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 86(1):39–49.

Society and Ecosystems

Chapter Introduction

  1. GCRP (U.S. Global Change Research Program). 2011. Societal indicators for the National Climate Assessment. NCA Report Series, Volume 5c. http://library.globalchange.gov/national-climate-assessment-societal-indicators-workshop-report.
  2. English, P.B., A. H. Sinclair, Z. Ross, H. Anderson, V. Boothe, C. Davis, K. Ebi, B. Kagey, K. Malecki, R. Shultz, and E. Simms. 2009. Environmental health indicators of climate change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative. Environ. Health Perspect. 117(11):1673–1681.
  3. Portier, C.J., T.K. Thigpen, S.R. Carter, C.H. Dilworth, A.E. Grambsch, J. Gohlke, J. Hess, S.N. Howard, G. Luber, J.T. Lutz, T. Maslak, N. Prudent, M. Radtke, J.P. Rosenthal, T. Rowles, P.A. Sandifer, J. Scheraga, P.J. Schramm, D. Strickman, J.M. Trtanj, and P.-Y. Whung. 2010. A human health perspective on climate change: A report outlining the research needs on the human health effects of climate change. Research Triangle Park, NC: Environmental Health Perspectives/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Streamflow

  1. USGS (U.S. Geological Survey). 2012. Analysis of data from the National Water Information System.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. Falcone, J.A., D.M. Carlisle, D.M. Wolock, and M.R. Meador. 2010. GAGES: A stream gage database for evaluating natural and altered flow conditions in the conterminous United States. Ecology 91(2):621.

Ragweed Pollen Season

  1. Arbes, S.J., Jr., P.J. Gergen, L. Elliott, and D.C. Zeldin. 2005. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the U.S. population: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116(2):377–383.
  2. Schappert, S.M., and E.A. Rechtsteiner. 2011. Ambulatory medical care utilization estimates for 2007. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 13(169). www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_13/sr13_169.pdf.
  3. Arbes, S.J., Jr., P.J. Gergen, L. Elliott, and D.C. Zeldin. 2005. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the U.S. population: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116(2):377–383.
  4. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2011. Pollen allergy. www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/allergicDiseases/understanding/pollenallergy/Pages/default.aspx.
  5. Wayne, P., S. Foster, J. Connolly, F. Bazzaz, and P. Epstein. 2002. Production of allergenic pollen by ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is increased in CO2-enriched atmospheres. Ann. Allergy. Asthma Im. 88:279–282.
  6. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007. Climate change 2007: Synthesis report (Fourth Assessment Report). www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/syr/en/contents.html.
  7. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. PNAS 108:4248–4251.
  8. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2012 update to data originally published in: Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. PNAS 108:4248–4251.
  9. Ziska, L., K. Knowlton, C. Rogers, D. Dalan, N. Tierney, M. Elder, W. Filley, J. Shropshire, L.B. Ford, C. Hedberg, P. Fleetwood, K.T. Hovanky, T. Kavanaugh, G. Fulford, R.F. Vrtis, J.A. Patz, J. Portnoy, F. Coates, L. Bielory, and D. Frenz. 2011. Recent warming by latitude associated with increased length of ragweed pollen season in central North America. PNAS 108:4248–4251.

Length of Growing Season

  1. Easterling, W.E., P.K. Aggarwal, P. Batima, K.M. Brander, L. Erda, S.M. Howden, A. Kirilenko, J. Morton, J.-F. Soussana, J. Schmidhuber, and F.N. Tubiello. 2007. Food, fibre and forest products. In: Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Kunkel, K.E. 2013 update to data originally published in: Kunkel, K.E., D.R. Easterling, K. Hubbard, and K. Redmond. 2004. Temporal variations in frost-free season in the United States: 1895–2000. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31:L03201.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.

Leaf and Bloom Dates

  1. Rosenzweig, C., G. Casassa, D.J. Karoly, A. Imeson, C. Liu, A. Menzel, S. Rawlins, T.L. Root, B. Seguin, and P. Tryjanowski. 2007. Assessment of observed changes and responses in natural and managed systems. In: Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability (Fourth Assessment Report). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  2. Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Glob. Chang. Biol. 12:343–351.
  3. For example, see: Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Glob. Chang. Biol. 12:343–351.
  4. Schwartz, M.D. 2011 update to data originally published in: Schwartz, M.D., R. Ahas, and A. Aasa. 2006. Onset of spring starting earlier across the Northern Hemisphere. Glob. Chang. Biol. 12:343–351.
  5. ibid.
  6. McCabe, G.J., T.R. Ault, B.I. Cook, J.L. Betancourt, and M.D. Schwartz. 2011. Influences of the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the timing of the North American spring. Int. J. Climatol. (online).

Bird Wintering Ranges

  1. National Audubon Society. 2009.Northward shifts in the abundance of North American birds in early winter: A response to warmer winter temperatures? www.audubon.org/bird/bacc/techreport.html.
  2. ibid.
  3. ibid.
  4. ibid.
  5. ibid.
  6. ibid.
  7. ibid.

Heat-Related Deaths


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