Authors, Notice, and Acknowledgements
Jack R. Geibig, Research Associate
Mary B. Swanson, Senior Research Associate
PWB Engineering Support Team
University of Tennessee
Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies
Kathy Hart, Project Lead
Dipti Singh, Technical Lead
EPA Design for the Environment Program
Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics
Washington, DC 20460
This document was produced under EPA Grant #CX823856 from EPA's Environmental
Technology Initiative Program.
PWB Engineering Support Team
The PWB Engineering Support Team consists of University of Tennessee faculty and graduate students who developed analytical models for the project and/or authored sections of this document. Members of the Team and the sections to which they contributed are listed below:
Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization
Dr. Chris D. Cox, Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Nicholas D. Jackson, M.S. Candidate, Civil and Environmental Engineering
Dr. R. Bruce Robinson, Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Dr. Rupy Sawhney, Assistant Professor of Industrial Engineering and Director,
Lean Production Laboratory
Some information in this document was provided by individual technology
vendors and has not been independently corroborated by EPA. The use of
specific trade names or the identification of specific products or processes
in this document are not intended to represent an endorsement by the EPA
or the U.S. Government. Discussion of federal environmental statutes is
intended for information purposes only; this is not an official guidance
document, and should not be relied on by companies in the printed wiring
board industry to determine applicable regulatory requirements.
For More Information
You can learn more about the Design for the Environment Printed Wiring Board Project, and obtain other related materials.
The DfE Web site (www.epa.gov/dfe) also contains the document, Cleaner Technology Substitutes Assessment: A Methodology and Resources Guide, which describes the basic methodology used in this assessment.
To learn more about the University of Tennessee Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, visit the Center's Web site at:
This document was prepared by the University of Tennessee (UT) Knoxville Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies and the PWB Engineering Support Team with assistance from numerous UT students and staff. The authors would like to acknowledge the outstanding contributions of Chad Toney, Nayef Alteneh, Scott Brown, Sittichai Lertwattanarak and Yatesh Midha, M.S. Candidates in Industrial Engineering, who helped design and perform the cost analysis in Section 4.2; Catherine Wilt, UT Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, who researched and wrote the Regulatory Status section (Section 4.3); and Margaret Goergen, UT Center for Clean Products and Clean Technologies, who was the document production manager.
Valuable contributions to the project were provided by the project's Core Group members, including: Kathy Hart, EPA Project Lead and Core Group Co-Chair; Christopher Rhodes, Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits, Core Group Co-Chair; Debbie Boger, EPA Technical Lead and Technical Workgroup Co-Chair; John Lott, DuPont Electronics, Technical Workgroup Co-Chair; Michael Kerr, Circuit Center, Inc., Communication Workgroup Co-Chair; Gary Roper, Substrate Technologies, Inc., Implementation Workgroup Co-Chair; Greg Pitts, Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation; John Sharp, Teradyne Connection Systems; Steve Bold, Continental Circuits Corporation; and Ted Smith, Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition.
We would like to acknowledge Bill Birch of PWB Interconnect Solutions, Inc., and Susan Mansilla of Robisan Laboratory, Inc., for their work in planning, conducting testing for, and writing a technical paper presenting the results of the making holes conductive performance demonstration. Recognition is also given to ADI/Isola who supplied the materials for the performance demonstration, and to H-R Industries, Inc. and Hadco Corporation for volunteering their facilities to build and electroplate the boards. Performance demonstration contractor support was provided by Abt Associates, Inc., of Cambridge, MA, under the direction of Cheryl Keenan.
The following members of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment (DfE) Staff and the EPA Workgroup provided direction and staff support for this project.
EPA Design for the Environment Staff
|Kathy Hart||Bill Hanson|
|Debbie Boger||Joe Breen|
EPA Risk Management Workgroup
We would like to express appreciation to the EPA Risk Management Workgroup,
who provided valuable expertise in the development of the CTSA and provided
comments on project documents.
|Sid Abel||Terry O'Bryan|
|Susan Dillman||Daljit Sawhney|
|Gail Froiman||John Shoaff|
|Susan Krueger||Tracy Williamson|
We would like to thank the suppliers for their participation in the Design
for the Environment Printed Wiring Board Project. In addition to supplying
critical information regarding the various technologies, these companies
also made significant contributions in planning and conducting the performance
demonstration. The participating suppliers are listed below.
Atotech U.S.A., Inc.
Solution Technology Systems
W.R. Grace and Company
Performance Demonstration Sites
We would like to recognize the twenty-six test sites that volunteered
the use of their facilities for the performance demonstration, and thank
them for their commitments of resources and time. We also appreciate the
assistance they provided in gathering data necessary for the preparation
of this document.
Bureau of Engraving Inc.
Circuit Connect, Inc.
Circuit Science, Inc.
Circuit Center, Inc.
Cray Research, Inc.
Dynacircuits Manufacturing Co.
Electronic Service and Design
GE Fanuc Automation
Graphic Products, Inc.
M-Tek/Mass Design, Inc.
Poly Print GmbH
Pronto Circuit Technologies
Schoeller & Co. Elektronik GmbH
Sigma Circuits, Inc.
Texas Instruments Printed Circuit Resources
We appreciate the industry representatives and other interested parties
who participated in the Printed Wiring Board Project Technical Workgroup,
and provided comments on the individual modules of the CTSA. Many thanks
to the members of this workgroup for their voluntary commitments to this
| Martin Bayes
Robert Boguski, Jr.
David Di Margo
H. Martin Jessen
C. Al McPherson
C. Edwin Thorn
Phil Van Buren
|ADD||average daily dose|
|ATSDR||Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry|
|BOA||bill of activities|
|Btu||British Thermal Units|
|CAA||Clean Air Act|
|CEB||Chemical Engineering Branch|
|CERCLA||Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act|
|CTSA||Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment|
|CWA||Clean Water Act|
|DEC||Digital Equipment Corporation of Canada|
|DfE||Design for the Environment|
|EPCRA||Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act|
|FTE||full-time employee equivalent|
|gpm||gallons per minute|
|HASL||hot air solder leveling|
|HC||Henry's Law Constant|
|HEAST||Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables|
|HSDB||Hazardous Substances Data Bank|
|IARC||International Agency for Research on Cancer|
|IPC||Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronics Circuits|
|IRIS||Integrated Risk Information System|
|ISCLT||Industrial Source Complex - Long Term|
|IST||Interconnect Stress Test|
|KUB||Knoxville Utility Board|
|LADD||lifetime average daily dose|
|LEPC||Local Emergency Planning Commission|
|MACT||maximum achievable control technology|
|MCC||Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation|
|MHC||making holes conductive|
|MOE||margin of exposure|
|MSDS||material safety data sheet|
|MTL||Master Testing List|
|NCP||National Contingency Plan|
|NIOSH||National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health|
|NPDES||National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System|
|NPDWR||National Primary Drinking Water Regulations|
|NSDWR||National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations|
|NTP||National Toxicology Program|
|OEM||original equipment manufacturer|
|OSHA||Occupational Safety and Health Administration|
|PEL||permissible exposure limit|
|PDR||potential dose rate|
|POTW||publicly-owned treatment work|
|PPE||personal protective equipment|
|psi||per square inch|
|PWB||printed wiring board|
|RCRA||Resource Conservation and Recovery Act|
|RTECS||Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances|
|SARA||Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act|
|SDWA||Safe Drinking Water Act|
|SERC||State Emergency Response Commission|
|SIC||standard industrial code|
|SPC||statistical process control|
|ssf||surface square feet|
|TMCR||Technology Market Research Council|
|TPY||tons per year|
|TRI||Toxic Release Inventory|
|TSCA||Toxic Substances Control Act|
|UT||University of Tennessee|
|VOC||volatile organic compounds|
Click here for an Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the introductory section of the book including the complete table of contents. [82K PDF file]
Click here for Volume I in
its entirety. [4,508K PDF file]
|PLEASE NOTE: Some of the documents mentioned in this Section are in Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF). To view or print them you will need to have the Adobe Acrobat Reader program installed on your computer. The Reader can be downloaded and used with no charge; check here for more information on the Adobe Acrobat Reader.|