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Printed Wiring Board Industry and Use Cluster Profile - Table of Contents

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PART ONE: PWB INDUSTRY PROFILE

  1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
    1. What is a PWB?
    2. Independent vs. Captive Production
    3. General Nature of Industry

  2. COMPANIES AND FACILITIES
    1. Number of Companies and Facilities
    2. Size of Companies

  3. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRY
    1. Profitability
    2. Operating and Financial Ratios

  4. MARKET ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRY
    1. World Market Summary
    2. Domestic Market History/Overview
    3. Imports/Exports
    4. Major Domestic Markets and Trends
    5. Analysis of Laminates and Process Consumables for Rigid Boards

  5. TECHNOLOGY TRENDS ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRY
    1. Multilayer Technology
    2. Surface Mount
    3. Fine-Pitch
    4. Density and Hole Sizes
    5. Plating and Coating
    6. Multichip Modules
PART TWO: PWB USE CLUSTER PROFILE

  1. OVERVIEW
    1. Introduction
    2. Use Cluster Profile
    3. Overview of PWB Types and Manufacturing Methods
      1. Single-sided Manufacturing Overview
      2. Double-sided Manufacturing Overview
      3. Multilayer Manufacturing Overview
      4. Flexible PWB Manufacturing Overview
      5. Subtractive Overview
      6. Additive Overview
      7. Additive Metallization Techniques
        1. Solid Systems
        2. Screen Printing
        3. Liquid
        4. Sequential Build

  2. CLUSTERS FOR RIGID MULTILAYER PWB MANUFACTURING
    1. Data Acquisition and Computer-aided Design (CAD)
    2. Inner Layer Image Transfer
      1. Overview
      2. Conventional Print-and-Etch
        1. Photo-tool Creation
        2. Material Preparation
        3. Imaging
        4. Etching
        5. Resist Stripping
        6. Oxide
      3. Image Transfer Options
        1. Direct Imaging
        2. Pre-treated Materials
    3. Lamination
    4. Drilling
      1. Overview
      2. Conventional CNC Drilling
        1. Introduction
        2. Entry Material
        3. Back-up Material
        4. Drill Bits and Process
      3. Laser Ablation
    5. Hole Cleaning
      1. Overview
      2. Wet Chemical Desmear and Etchback
        1. Wet Chemical Methods
        2. Plasma Etchback
    6. Making Holes Conductive
      1. Overview
      2. Electroless Copper
        1. Cleaning
        2. Activation and Acceleration
        3. Copper Deposition
        4. Process Waste Streams
      3. Carbon-based Alternatives
      4. Graphite-based Alternative
        1. Cleaning and Conditioning
        2. Graphite
        3. Micro-etch
        4. Anti-tarnish
        5. Process Waste Streams
      5. Palladium-based Alternatives
        1. Cleaner/Conditioner
        2. Micro-etch
        3. Drying
        4. Process Waste Streams
    7. Outer Layer Image Transfer
      1. Overview
      2. Image, Pattern Plate, and Etch
        1. Imaging
        2. Pattern Plating Copper
        3. Pattern Plating Etch-resist
        4. Photoresist Stripping
        5. Outer Layer Etching
        6. Tin and Tin-Lead Stripping
      3. Panel-Plate, Print, and Etch ("Tent-and-Etch")
    8. Surface Finish
      1. Overview
      2. Solder Mask Over Bare Copper (SMOBC), Hot Air Solder Level (HASL)
        1. Solder Mask
        2. Hot Air Solder Level (HASL)
      3. Reflowed Tin-Lead
      4. Nickel/Gold
        1. Hard Gold
        2. Soft Electrolytic Gold
        3. Electroless Nickel/Immersion Gold
    9. Final Fabrication

  3. SUPPORT OPERATIONS
    1. Waste Treatment
    2. Waste Streams
      1. Solvents
      2. Process Baths

  4. SELECTING A USE-CLUSTER FOR A DfE PROJECT
    1. Cleaner Technology Substitute Assessment
    2. Use Cluster Scoring System
    3. Use Cluster Selection in the DfE PWB Project
    4. Future Design for Environment Projects
REFERENCES

APPENDIX
A. Glossary of Terms

LIST OF TABLES

1-1 Distribution of PWB Manufacturing Facilities, 1994

1-2 U.S. Independent PWB Manufacturers: Number and Size of Company by Sales

1-3 Quantity and Value of Domestic PWB Production

1-4 Domestic Rigid PWB and Laminate Production by Type of Substrate Used

2-1 Lasers Available for Via Formation in PWB Fabrication

2-2 Plasma Etchback Parameters

LIST OF FIGURES

1-1 U.S. Independent PWB Manufacturers: Market Share by Size of Company

1-2 U.S. Dollar Denominated Share of World Rigid PWB Market for Selected Countries/Regions

1-3 U.S. Dollar Denominated Production of World Rigid PWB Market by Type of Substrate

1-4 Historical World Market Share for Rigid and Flexible Circuits

1-5 Comparison: Multilayers (including high-performance multilayers) vs. All Other Rigid PWBs (excluding flex)

1-6 Historic Trends of Make vs. Buy for PWB Production in the U.S.

1-7 Market for PWBs in the United States in 1993

1-8 Sales of Various Process Consumables for Rigid Boards in 1993

1-9 Historical Trends for Layer Count in Multilayer PWBs

1-10 Historical Trends on Surface Mount Applications in PWB Production

1-11 Use of Fine-pitch Technology

1-12 Density of PWB Production Based on Dollar Value of Production: OEM vs. Independents

1-13 Percent of Production for Various Hole Sizes Based on Dollar Value of Production for 1993

1-14 Percent Usage of 2 0.019" Holes from 1985 through 1993 Based on Dollar Value of Production

1-15 Historical Trends in PWB Surface Finish Techniques Based on Dollar Value of Production

1-16 Historical Trends in PWB Protective Coating Techniques

1-17 Worldwide IC Packaging Methods

2-1 The Basic Manufacturing Flow for the Fabrication of Rigid Multilayer PWBs

2-2 The Simplified Subtractive Process for Manufacturing Inner Layers of Rigid Multilayers, and a Cross-Section of Two Inner Layer Cores within a Multilayer Structure

2-3 The Simplified Full-Build Additive Process for Manufacturing Inner Layers of Rigid Multilayers, and a Cross-Section of a Multilayer Structure

2-4 Typical Process Flow for PWB Manufacture

2-5 Inner Layer Image Transfer Use Cluster

2-6 Schematic Drawing of an Exposure Tool for Inner Layers

2-7 Typical Oxide Process Line

2-8 Drill Holes Use Cluster

2-9 Clean Holes Use Cluster

2-10 Typical Desmear Process Line

2-11 Make Holes Conductive Use Cluster

2-12 Typical Electroless Copper Plating Line

2-13 Outer Layer Image Transfer Use Cluster

2-14 Typical Pattern Plate, Etch-resist, Photoresist Strip Process Line

2-15 Typical Ammoniacal Etch Process

2-16 Surface Finish Use Cluster

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