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Composting for Facilities Basics

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Compost is organic material that can be used as a soil amendment or as a medium to grow plants. Mature compost is a stable material with a content called humus that is dark brown or black and has a soil-like, earthy smell. It is created by: combining organic wastes (e.g., yard trimmings, food wastes, manures) in proper ratios into piles, rows, or vessels; adding bulking agents (e.g., wood chips) as necessary to accelerate the breakdown of organic materials; and allowing the finished material to fully stabilize and mature through a curing process.

Natural composting, or biological decomposition, began with the first plants on earth and has been going on ever since. As vegetation falls to the ground, it slowly decays, providing minerals and nutrients needed for plants, animals, and microorganisms. Mature compost, however, includes the production of high temperatures to destroy pathogens and weed seeds that natural decomposition does not destroy.

Benefits of Composting

The Composting Process

One of the most important steps for evaluating composting options is to become familiar with how the composting process works. Before you begin composting or start a composting program, you should understand the five primary variables that must be “controlled” during composting. These include the following:

Types of Composting

Backyard or Onsite Composting

Vermicomposting

Aerated (Turned) Windrow Composting

Aerated Static Pile Composting

In-Vessel Composting


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