C & D LandfillsThe majority of C&D material ends up in two types of landfills:
- municipal solid waste landfills, which handle household waste; and
- C&D landfills, which are devoted exclusively to C&D materials.
Unknown amounts of C&D materials are also believed to go to combustion facilities or unpermitted landfills. EPA estimates that approximately 1,900 C&D landfills operated nationwide in 1994. Municipal solid waste landfills are subject to EPA landfill criteria, while state and local governments mostly regulate C&D landfills. EPA regulations (i.e., the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators Rule (CESQGs) , June 1996), however, do ban hazardous waste from being dumped in C&D landfills, unless those landfills meet certain standards. Building materials containing lead and asbestos are also regulated by EPA.
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more.
EPA recently published RCRA in Focus: Construction, Demolition, and Renovation (PDF) (24 pp, 1.4MB) , which discusses the solid and hazardous waste regulations that may apply to certain C&D generators and landfills.
EPA also developed several reports about C&D landfills in support of the CESQGs rule:
- Report on Construction and Demolition Waste Landfills (PDF) (39 pp, 277K)
- List of Industrial & Construction & Demolition Waste Landfills (PDF) (188 pp, 265K)
- Environmental Damages Cases from Construction and Demolition Waste Landfills (PDF) (44 pp, 244K)
To learn about current efforts to divert C&D debris from landfills, see Reducing C&D Materials .
Additional compliance information can be found at the Construction Industry Compliance Assistance Center (CICA), or contact your state environmental protection agency (visit the Where You Live page).