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Medical Waste Publications
EPA has compiled an extensive list of documents, factsheets, and other resources related to medical waste management:
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more.Community Options for Safe Needle Disposal (PDF) (8 pp, 590K)
Describes safe needle disposal programs that communities and states might adopt. Offers examples of successful programs including: drop-off collection sites, community household hazardous waste collection centers, residential "special waste" pickups, syringe exchange programs, mail-back services, and home needle destruction devices.
Protect Yourself, Protect Others: Safe Options for Home Needle Disposal (PDF) (2 pp, 257K) | Chinese Translation (PDF) (2 pp, 804K) | Spanish Translation (PDF) (4 pp, 485K)
Describes disposal options for people who use syringes and other medical sharps at home. Contains information on six types of services available to home users: drop-off collection sites, community household hazardous waste collection centers, residential "special waste" pickups, syringe exchange programs, mail-back services, and home needle destruction devices.
Handle with Care: How To Throw Out Used Insulin Syringes and Lancets at Home - A Booklet for Young People with Diabetes and Their Families (PDF) (10 pp, 872K) | Text Version (text file) (3 pp, 6K)
Offers easy directions and illustrations for young people with diabetes on how to protect family members and waste handlers from injury, while keeping the environment clean and safe.
US Post Office Bulletin: Infectious Substances (PDF) (7 pp, 762K)
Provides postal regulations.
Finding the Rx for Managing Medical Wastes
This Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) report evaluates medical waste issues in the broader context of a waste management policy for the nation. The document examines waste reduction and recycling options for medical waste management, as well as incineration and non-incineration treatment alternatives.
- Table of Contents (PDF) (10 pp, 580K)
- Introduction (PDF) (8 pp, 1.2MB)
- Chapter 1: Characterizing Medical Wastes and Applying a Comprehensive Management Technology (PDF) (10 pp, 1.3MB)
- Chapter 2: Before Treatment: Waste Reduction and Recycling (PDF) (8 pp, 1.1MB)
- Chapter 3: Non-incineration Treatment Technologies and Trends (PDF) (14 pp, 1.4MB)
- Chapter 4: Incineration Treatment and Trends (PDF) (17 pp, 1.4MB)
- Chapter 5: Special Treatment Issues (PDF) (5 pp, 667K)
- Chapter 6: Comparisons of Treatment Technologies (PDF) (3 pp, 416K)
- Appendices and References (PDF) (10 pp, 1.2MB)
Treatment Technologies Guidance Documents
Guidance for Evaluating Medical Waste Treatment Technologies -- DRAFT
This report provides guidance on evaluating medical waste treatment technologies based on lessons learned in EPA's studies.
- Table of Contents (PDF) (11 pp, 586K)
- Introduction (PDF) (10 pp, 946K)
- Incineration (PDF) (14 pp, 1MB)
- Steam Autoclave Treatment (PDF) (6 pp, 592K)
- Chemical Treatment (PDF) (13 pp, 996K)
- Non-Ionizing Radiation Treatment (PDF) (4 pp, 372K)
- Worker Health and Safety (PDF) (5 pp, 487K)
- Facility Maintenance (PDF) (13 pp, 849K)
Bioemissions from Medical Waste Treatment Technologies: Evaluation of Indicator Microorganism Recovery -- DRAFT
EPA initiated this second research study in April 1993 to develop protocols for "Evaluation of Potential Biological Emissions from Alternative Medical Treatment Technologies."
Evaluation of Potential Biological Emissions from Alternative Medical Treatment Technologies -- DRAFT
This document was the last of three draft research reports in July 1993 concerning alternative treatment technologies for medical waste.
- Table of Contents (PDF) (6 pp, 259K)
- List of Tables & Figures (PDF) (5 pp, 536K)
- Pages 1-10 (PDF) (10 pp, 822K)
- Pages 11-20 (PDF) (10 pp, 842K)
- Pages 21-30 (PDF) (10 pp, 722K)
- Pages 31-40 (PDF) (10 pp, 783K)
- Pages 41-50 (PDF) (10 pp, 731K)
- Pages 51-57 (PDF) (7 pp, 499K)
- Appendix A (Table of Contents) (PDF) (4 pp, 236K)
- Appendix A pages 1-9 (PDF) (9 pp, 886K)
- Appendix A pages 10-17 (PDF) (8 pp, 687K)
- Appendix B (PDF) (8 pp, 727K)
Alternate Treatment Technologies Fact Sheets -- DRAFT
- Steam Autoclave (PDF) (1 pg, 126K)
- Microwave Irradiation (PDF) (1 pg, 131K)
- Chemical or Mechanical/Chemical Treatment (PDF) (1 pg, 401K)
- Radiofrequency Irradiation (PDF) (1 pg, 113K)
Technical Assistance Manual: State Regulatory Oversight of Medical Waste Treatment Technologies
State and Territorial Association on Alternate Treatment Technologies (STAATT) report establishing a framework or guideline that defines medical waste treatment technology efficacy criteria and delineates the components required to establish an effective state medical waste treatment technology approval process.
- Introduction & Table of Contents (PDF) (7 pp, 442K)
- Pages 1-10 (PDF) (10 pp, 1.2MB)
- Pages 11-20 (PDF) (10 pp, 987K)
- Pages 21-30 (PDF) (10 pp, 965K)
- Pages 31-39 (PDF) (9 pp, 765K)
- Appendix A (PDF) (17 pp, 1.2MB)
- Appendix B (PDF) (12 pp, 853K)
- Appendix C (PDF) (7 pp, 466K)
- Appendix D (PDF) (9 pp, 639K)
Innovative Hazardous Waste Treatment Technologies: A Developer's Guide to Support Services
EPA recognizes the challenges faced by hazardous waste treatment technology developers and vendors. This booklet provides information on sources of assistance and support in bringing technologies from the proof of concept stage to the commercialization stage. It includes information on sources of grant funding and technical assistance, and identifies incubators, test and evaluation facilities, and university-affiliated research centers that can provide a range of technology development and evaluation services.
- Table of Contents (PDF) (7 pp, 573K)
- Chapters 1, 2, & 3 (PDF) (11 pp, 1.3MB)
- Chapter 4 (PDF) (9 pp, 1.3MB)
- Chapter 5 (PDF) (11 pp, 1.4MB)
- Order Form (PDF) (3 pp, 193K)