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Open Lakes Trend Monitoring Program: Toxaphene

Contact Information

For further information on the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program, please contact:

Elizabeth Murphy (murphy.elizabeth@epa.gov)
Environmental Scientist
EPA Great Lakes National Program Office
(312) 353-4227 or 1-800-621-8431 x34227

Access the Data

Data produced by the GLFMSP can be obtained through the Great Lakes Environmental Database Query System or through the University of Illinois Extension website Exit EPA Disclaimer

You can also contact the program manager, Elizabeth Murphy, for information regarding the GLFMSP and/or supporting data.

Peer reviewed journal articles published using GLFMSP data can also be found on the Reports & Links page.

Lake Superior Total Toxaphene

GLFMSP Clarkson et al. 2012

Mean toxaphene (ppb) in lake trout/walleye from 1994 through 2009.

Mean toxaphene (ppb) in lake trout/walleye from 1994 through 2009. (Click to enlarge)

Decreases in toxaphene concentrations have been observed throughout the Great Lakes in all media following its ban in the mid-1980s. A recent study on toxaphene trends in Great Lakes fish show that concentrations remain the highest in Lake Superior (up to ~480 ng/g) and lowest in Lake Erie (up to ~50 ng/g) (Xia et al.). Concentrations of toxaphene in Lake Trout and Walleye continue to exhibit exponential temporal declines in all of the Great Lakes; however, concentrations appear to level off starting in 2007 (Xia et al). Continued monitoring of toxaphene in top predator fish in the coming years should confirm whether toxaphene concentrations have reached a steady state in Great Lakes fish.

GLFMSP toxaphene publications:

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