Open Lakes Trend Monitoring Program: Toxaphene
For further information on the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program, please contact:
Elizabeth Murphy (firstname.lastname@example.org)
EPA Great Lakes National Program Office
(312) 353-4227 or 1-800-621-8431 x34227
Access the Data
You can also contact the program manager, Elizabeth Murphy, for information regarding the GLFMSP and/or supporting data.
Peer reviewed journal articles published using GLFMSP data can also be found on the Reports & Links page.
Decreases in toxaphene concentrations have been observed throughout the Great Lakes in all media following its ban in the mid-1980s. A recent study on toxaphene trends in Great Lakes fish show that concentrations remain the highest in Lake Superior (up to ~480 ng/g) and lowest in Lake Erie (up to ~50 ng/g) (Xia et al.). Concentrations of toxaphene in Lake Trout and Walleye continue to exhibit exponential temporal declines in all of the Great Lakes; however, concentrations appear to level off starting in 2007 (Xia et al). Continued monitoring of toxaphene in top predator fish in the coming years should confirm whether toxaphene concentrations have reached a steady state in Great Lakes fish.
GLFMSP toxaphene publications:
- Glassmeyer, S.T., De Vault, D.S., Myers, T.R., and Hites, R.A. 1997. Toxaphene in Great Lakes fish: A temporal, spatial and trophic study. Environmental Science and Techonolgy. 31(1): 84 - 88
- Glassmeyer, S. T., De Vault, D. S., and Hites, R. A., 2000. Rates at Which Toxaphene Concentrations Decrease in Lake Trout from the Great Lakes. Environmental Science and Technology. 34: 1851 – 1855.
- Xia, X., Crimmins, B.S., Hopke, P.K., Pagano, J.J., Milligan, M.S., and Holsen, T.M. 2009. Toxaphene analysis in Great Lakes fish: a comparison of GC-EI/MS/MS and GC-ECNI-MS, individual congener standard and technical mixture for quantification of toxaphene. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 395:457–463.
- Xia, X., Hopke, P.K. , Holsen, T.M., and Crimmins, B.S. 2011. Modeling Toxaphene in the Great Lakes. Science of the Total Environment. 409 792–799.
- Xia, X., Crimmins, B.S., Hopke, P.K., Pagano, J.J., Milligan, M.S., and Holsen, T.M. 2012. Toxaphene trends in the Great Lakes fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 38: 31 – 38.