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Sediment Assessment and Remediation Report

Guidance for In-Situ Subaqueous Capping of Contaminated Sediments

Acknowledgments
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION
Background
ARCS Guidance
Document Purpose and Scope
In-Situ Capping Overview
Design Sequence for In-Situ Capping

CHAPTER TWO - SITE EVALUATION
Remediation Objectives
Remediation Scope
Site Conditions
Regulatory and Legal Considerations
Preliminary Feasibility Determination

CHAPTER THREE - IN-SITU CAP DESIGN
General Considerations
Identification of Capping Materials
Physical Isolation Component
Stabilization/Erosion Protection Component
Chemical Isolation Component
Component Interactions
Geotechnical Considerations
Operational Considerations

CHAPTER FOUR - EQUIPMENT AND PLACEMENT TECHNIQUES
General Considerations
Equipment and Placement Techniques for Granular Cap Materials
Equipment and Placement Techniques for Armoring Layers
Placement of Geosynthetic Fabrics
Positioning Requirements

CHAPTER FIVE - MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT
Monitoring Requirements
Design of Monitoring Programs and Plans
Construction Monitoring
Cap Performance Monitoring
Management Actions

CHAPTER SIX - SUMMARY
Summary

Recommendations
References

Appendix A: Design of Armor Layers
[PDF 179Kb, 15pps]

Appendix B: Model for Evaluation of Long Term Flux of Contaminants
[PDF 239Kb, 17pps]

Appendix C: Case Studies on Geotechnical Aspects of In-Situ Sand Capping
[PDF 432Kb, 21pps]

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1. Summary of In-Situ Capping Projects
Table 2-1. Standard Geotechnical Laboratory Test Procedures
Table 2. Sample of Tiered Monitoring Program for Dredged Material Capping

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Conceptual Illustration of Dredged Material Capping and In-Situ Capping Options
Figure 2. Flowchart Showing Sequence of Steps Involved with the Design of an In-Situ Capping Project.
Figure 3. Flowchart Showing Steps Involved in Design and Evaluation of Various In-Situ Cap Components.
Figure 4. Illustrations of Alternative Combinations of Cap Components.
Figure 5. Laboratory Methods to Evaluate Chemical Isolation by Caps.
Figure 6. Relationship Between Relative Density and Effective Friction Angle for Clean Sands.
Figure 7. Recommended Cap Edge Overlap.
Figure 8. Conceptual Illustrations of Equipment Which Can Be Considered for Capping.
Figure 9. Land-based Cap Placement at Sheboygan River.
Figure 10. Spreading Technique for Capping by Barge Movement at Denny Way, Puget Sound.
Figure 11. Hydraulic Washing of Coarse Sand, Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound.
Figure 12. Spreader Plate for Hydraulic Pipeline Discharge.
Figure 13. Spreader Box or "Sand Box" for Hydraulic Pipeline Discharge, Simpson Kraft Tacoma, Puget Sound.
Figure 14. Submerged Diffuser Dystem, Including the Diffuser and Discharge Barge.
Figure 15. Hydraulic Barge Unloader and Sand Spreader Barge (from Kikegawa 1983).
Figure 16. Conveyor Unloading Barge with Tremie (from Togashi 1983).
Figure 17. Tremie System Employed at Hamilton Harbor.
Figure 18. Stone Placement at Sheboygan Harbor.
Figure 19. Schematic of a Settling Plate Used for Monitoring Cap Consolidation.
Figure 20. Illustration of Sediment Profiling Camera.
Figure 21. Semi-Permeable Bags or "Peepers" Filled with an Organic Solvent Used for Monitoring theLevels of Hydrophobic Contaminants in Sediment Pore Water.
Figure 22. Seepage Meter Used to Measure Groundwater Flow.

 


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