- Areas of Concern
- The Clean Water Act
- Great Lakes Image Collection
- State-of-the-Lakes Great Lakes Ecosystem
- The Great Lakes Atlas
- 25 Years of Great Lakes Protection
View Entire Report
[PDF 152Kb, 36pages]
The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
U.S. Response to Recommendation to the IJC's 10th Biennial Report on Great Lake Water Quality - August 2001
- Glossary of Terms
- Remedial Action Plans
- Threat to Human Health
- Contaminated Sediment
- Airborne Toxic Substances
- Great lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
- Land Use
- Alien Invasive Species
- Information and Data Management
- SOLEC and Indicators
- Appendix 1
Recent Findings of ATSDR Human Health Effects Study in the Great Lakes
- A significant trend of increasing body burden is associated with
increased fish consumption (Fitzgerald et al., 1996a,b, 1999; Falk et
al., 1999; Hanrahan et al., 1999)
- Men eat more fish than women; men and women eat Great Lakes sport
fish during most of their reproductive years (Courval et al., 1996;
Fitzgerald et al., 1996a,b, 1999; Lonky et al, 1996; Waller et
al.,1996; Hanrahan et al., 1999).
- Consumption of Lake Ontario Great Lakes sport fish by women of childbearing age increases the risk for prenatal exposure to the most heavily chlorinated PCBs (Stewart et al.,1999).
Socio-Behavioral and Demographics Data
- A recent survey of adult residents of the eight Great Lakes states
estimated that 4.7 million people consumed Great Lakes sport fish in a
given year; and 43.9% of the respondents were women (Tilden et
- Knowledge of and adherence to health advisories for Great Lakes
sport caught fish varies across different genders and populations.,
e.g., men verus women and whites verus Native Americans, respectively
(Fitzgerald et al., 1996 a,b, 1999; Waller et al., 1996; Tilden et
- Fifty percent of respondents to the survey who had eaten Great Lakes sport fish were aware of the health advisory for fish, and awareness differed significantly by race, sex, educational level, fish consumption, and state of residence (Tilden et al., 1997).
- Conception rate and the incidence of a live birth are lower in some
women who are sport fish consumers (Courval et al.,1999; Buck et al.
- An association was found between men who consumed large amounts of
sport fish and the risk of delayed conception in their spouses (Courval
- Significant menstrual cycle reductions were indicated in women who
reported consuming more than 1 meal per month of contaminated Great
Lakes sport fish (Mendola et al.,1997).
- In the Oswego study neurobehavioral and developmental deficits have
been observed in newborns (12 to 24 hours after birth and again 25 to
48 hours after birth) of mothers who consumed approximately 2.3 meals
per month of contaminated Lake Ontario fish (Lonky et al., 1996).
- The relationship between prenatal exposure to PCBs and performance
on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) was assessed in
newborns of the Oswego study. The results indicated significant
relationships between the most highly chlorinated PCBs and performance
impairment on the habituation and autonomic tests of the NBAS at 25 -
48 hours after birth. No significant relationship was found between
PCBs of lesser chlorination, DDE (dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene),
hexachlorobenzene, mirex, lead or mercury on any NBAS performance
test. (Stewart et al., 2000).
- Some of exposed newborns in the Oswego study are three years of age
and initial test results for memory, verbal, and perceptual
performance indicate their score is lower than children from mothers
who consumed lower amounts or no Great Lakes sport fish (Stewart et
- Self-reported liver disease, diabetes, and muscle/joint pain may be
associated with exposure to PCBs and other contaminants via fish
consumption (Dellinger et al., 1997).
- PCB concentrations were significantly associated with poorer
pegboard performance. The pegboard performance test evaluates visual
motor coordination and spatial orientation (Dellinger et al., 1995a).
- PCBs and DDE were markedly elevated in an adult fish eating cohort. Exposure to PCBs, not DDE was associated with lower scores on several measures of memory and learning (Schantz et al., 2001).
|GLOSSARY OF TERMS|
|Aquatic Nuisance Species
Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force
Area of Concern
Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Biodiversity Investment Area
Ballast Water and Shipping Committee
Confined Disposal Facility
Coastal Environmental Management
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
Clean Michigan Initiative
Clean Water Act
Department of Natural Resources
Department of Health
Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy
Great Lakes Commission
Great Lakes Environmental Database
Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program
Great Lakes International Surveillance Plan
Great Lakes National Program Office
Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory
Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network
International Joint Commission
International Maritime Organization
Lakewide Management Plan
Lake Michigan Mass Balance
Mercury Deposition Network
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Priority List
Natural Resource Damage Assessment
Office of Research and Development
Public Advisory Council
Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic
Partner Identified Ecosystems
Pollution from Land Use Activities Reference Group
Quality Assurance/Quality Control
Remedial Action Plan
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
State of the Lakes Ecosystem Conference
Statewide Public Advisory Council
Superfund Redevelopment Initiative
Storage and Retrieval
Total Maximum Daily Loads
United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Coast Guard
United States Department of Agriculture
United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Geological Survey
United States Policy Committee
Women, Infants, and Children
Full References for Great Lakes Research Findings Listed Above
Anderson, H.A., Falk, C., Hanrahan, L., Olson, J., Burse, V., Needham, L., et al. 1998. Profiles of Great Lakes critical pollutants: a sentinel analysis of human blood and urine -The Great Lakes Consortium. Environ Health Perspect. 106(5), 279-289.
Buck, G. M., Vena, J.E., Schisterman, E.F., Dmochowski, J., Mendola, P., Sever, L.E. Fitzgerald, E., Kostyniak, P., Greizerstein, H., and Olson, J. 2000. Parental consumption of contaminated sport fish from Lake Ontario and predicted fecundability. Epidemiol. 11(4), 388-393.
Courval, J.M., DeHoog, J.V., Stein, A.D., Tay, E.M., He, J., Humphrey, H.E.B., and Paneth, N. 1999. Sport-caught fish consumption and conception delay in licensed Michigan anglers. Environ Res. 80(Suppl 2), 183-188.
Courval, J.M., DeHoog, J.V., Holzman, C.B., Tay, E.M., Fischer, L., Humphrey, H.E.B., Paneth, N.S., and Sweeney, A.M. 1996. Fish consumption and other characteristics of reproductive-aged Michigan anglers - a potential population for studying the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on reproductive health. Toxicol. Ind. Health 12, 347-359.
Dellinger, J.A., Gerstenberger, S.L., Hansen, L.K., Kmiecek, N. Meyers R.M., Gebhardt, K.J. and Malek, L.L.1995a. An assessment of a human population at risk: the impact of consuming contaminated Great Lakes fish on Native Americans - Progress Report to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 1998.
Dellinger, J.A., Gerstenberger, S.L., Hansen, L.K., and Malek, L.L. 1997. Ojibwa health study: assessing the health risks from consuming contaminated Great Lakes fish. Health Conference '97 Great Lakes and St. Lawrence. Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Falk, L., Hanrahan, L., Anderson, H.A., Kanarek, M.S., Draheim, L., Needham, L, et al. 1999. Body burdens levels of dioxins, furans, and PCBs among frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport fish. Environ Res. 80(Suppl 2), 19-25.
Fitzgerald, E.F., Hwang, S., Cook, K., Worswick, P., E.F., Deres, Bush, B., Yang, B-z., et al; 1996a. PCB, DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene exposure among native American men and women from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife - Progress Report to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Fitzgerald, E., Brix, K., Detes, D., Hwang, S., Bush, B., Lambert, G., and Tarbell A. 1996b. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife 1996b. Toxicol. Ind. Health 12, 361-368.
Fitzgerald, E.F., Deres, D.A., Hwang, S-A., Bush, B., Yang, B-z., Tarbell, A., and Jacobs, A. 1999. Local fish consumption and serum PCB concentrations among Mohawk men at Akwesasne. Environ. Res. 80(Suppl 2), 97-103.
Hanrahan, L.P., Falk, C., Anderson, H.A., Draheim, L., Kanarek, M.S., Olson, J. et al. 1999. Serum PCB and DDE levels of frequent Great Lakes sport fish consumers - a first look. Environ. Res. 80(Suppl 2), 26-37.
Lonky, E., Reihman, J., Darvill, T., Mather, J., and Daly, H. 1996. Neonatal behavioral assessment scale performance in humans influenced by maternal consumption of environmentally contaminated Lake Ontario fish. J Great Lakes Res. 22(2), 98-212.
Mendola, P., Buck, G.M., Sever, L.E., Zieiezny, M,. Vena ,J.E. 1997. Consumption of PCB-contaminated freshwater fish and shortened menstrual cycle length. Am J Epidemiol. 146(11), 955-960.
Schantz, S.L., Sweeney, A.M., Gardiner, J.C., Humphrey, H.E.B., McCaffrey, R.J., Gasior, D.M., Srikanth, K.R., and Budd, M.L. 1996. Neuropsychological assessment of an aging population of Great Lakes fish eaters. Toxicol Ind Health 12, 403-417.
Schantz, S.L., Gardiner, J.C., Gasior, D.M., Sweeney, A.M., Humphrey, H.E.B., and McCaffrey, R.J. 1999. Motor functioning in aging Great Lakes fisheaters. Environ. Res. 80(Suppl 2), 46-56.
Schantz, S.L., Gasior, D.M., Polverejan, E., McCaffrey R.J., Sweeney A.M., Humphrey, H.E.B., and Gardiner, J.C. 2001. Impairments of memory and learning in older adults exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls via consumption of Great Lakes fish. Environ. Health Perspect.109(5) (In print)
Stewart, P., Darvill, T., Lonky, E., Reihman, J. 1998. Behavioral effects of consumption of Lake Ontario fish: two methodological approaches - Progress Report to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Stewart, P., Darvill, T., Lonky, E., Reihman, J., Pagano, J., and Bush, B. 1999. Assessment of prenatal exposure of PCBs from maternal consumption of Great Lakes fish: an analysis of PCB pattern and concentration. Environ. Res. 80(Suppl 2), 87-96.
Stewart, P., Reihman, J., Lonky, E., Darvill, T., and Pagano, J. 2000. Prenatal PCB exposure and neonatal behavioral assessment scale (NBAS) performance. Neurotoxicol. Teratol. 22, 21-29.
Tilden, J., Hanrahan, L., Anderson, H.A., Palit, C., Olson, J., MacKenzie, W. 1997. Health advisories for consumers of Great Lakes sport fish: Is the message being received? Environ. Health Perspect. 105(12), 1360-1365.
Tryphonas, H. 1995. Immunotoxicity of PCBs (Aroclors) in relation to Great Lakes. Environ. Health Perspect. 103(Suppl 9), 35-46.
Waller, D.P., Presperin, C., Drum, M.L., Negrusz, A., Larsen, A.K., van der Ven, H., and Hibbard, J.1996. Great Lakes fish as a source of maternal and fetal exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons. Toxicol. Ind. Health 12, 335-345.