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Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Developments Drinking Water Research Program
May 2007

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Drinking Water Research Program. For this analysis, 910 papers were reviewed, and they were published from 1996 to 2006. These publications were cited 13,632 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science1 and Scopus2. Of these 910 publications, 783 (86.04%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

Searches of Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science and Elsevier’s Scopus were conducted to obtain times cited data for the drinking water journal publications. The analysis was completed using Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. For this analysis, the ESI highly cited papers thresholds as well as the hot papers thresholds were used to assess the influence and impact of the drinking water papers. JCR is a recognized authority for evaluating journals. It presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community. The two key measures used in this analysis to assess the journals in which the EPA drinking water papers are published are the Impact Factor and Immediacy Index. The Impact Factor is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to other journals in the same field. The Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the “average article” in a journal is cited. This index indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the same year and it is useful in comparing how quickly journals are cited.

The report includes a summary of the results of the bibliometric analysis, an analysis of the 910 drinking water research papers analyzed by ESI field (e.g., chemistry, microbiology, pharmacology & toxicology), an analysis of the journals in which the drinking water papers were published, a table of the highly cited researchers in the Drinking Water Research Program, and a list of patents and patent applications that have resulted from the program.

Summary of Results

  1. More than one-fifth of the drinking water publications are highly cited papers. 193 (21.21%) of the drinking water papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. This is 2.12 times the 10% of papers expected to be highly cited. 26 (2.86%) of the drinking water papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1%, which is 2.86 times the number expected. 1 (0.11%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited when using the criteria for the top 0.1%, which is exactly the number anticipated. None of the papers actually meet the 0.01% threshold for the most highly cited papers, which is not surprising given that the number of papers expected to meet this threshold for this program is 0.09.
  2. The drinking water papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 14 of the 19 fields in which the 910 EPA drinking water papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the drinking water papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields. For all 19 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (13,632 to 8,944.60) is 1.52, indicating that the drinking water papers are more highly cited than the average paper.
  3. More than one-third of the drinking water papers are published in high impact journals. 411 of the 910 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 45.16% of EPA’s drinking water papers. This number is 4.52 times higher than the expected 91 papers. 278 of the 910 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 30.55% of EPA’s drinking water papers. This number is 3.06 times higher than the expected 91 papers.
  4. Fourteen of the drinking water papers qualify as hot papers. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 14 hot papers, representing 1.54% of the drinking water papers, were identified in the analysis. Hot papers are papers that were highly cited shortly after they were published. The number of drinking water hot papers identified is 15.4 times higher than the expected 0.91 hot papers.
  5. The authors of the drinking water papers cite themselves much less than the average author. 661 of the 13,632 cites are author self-cites. This 4.85% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.
  6. Twenty of the authors of the drinking water papers are included in ISIHighlyCited.com,which is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999.
  7. There was 1 patent issued to an investigator from 1996 to 2006 for research that was conducted under EPA’s Drinking Water Research Program. This patent was cited by another patent.

Highly Cited Drinking water Publications

All of the journals covered by ESI are assigned a field, and to compensate for varying citation rates across scientific fields, different thresholds are applied to each field. Thresholds are set to select highly cited papers to be listed in ESI. Different thresholds are set for both field and year of publication. Setting different thresholds for each year allows comparable representation for older and younger papers for each field.

The 910 drinking water research papers reviewed for this analysis were published in journals that were assigned to 19 of the 22 ESI fields. The distribution of the papers among these 19 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Drinking Water Papers by ESI Fields

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of DW Papers

Average Cites/Paper

Agricultural Sciences

130

18

7.22

Biology & Biochemistry

354

27

13.11

Chemistry

1,360

73

18.63

Clinical Medicine

1,575

104

15.14

Computer Science

6

1

6.00

Economics & Business

57

4

14.25

Engineering

442

55

8.04

Environment/Ecology

2,800

267

10.49

Geosciences

9

5

1.80

Immunology

569

26

21.88

Materials Science

0

1

0.00

Microbiology

2,212

106

20.87

Molecular Biology & Genetics

712

44

16.18

Multidisciplinary

199

4

49.75

Neuroscience & Behavior

204

14

14.57

Pharmacology & Toxicology

2,835

142

19.96

Physics

27

2

13.50

Plant & Animal Science

33

8

4.12

Social Sciences, general

108

9

12.00

 

Total = 13,632

Total = 910

14.98

There are 193 (21.21% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA drinking water papers in 15 of the 19 fields—Agricultural Sciences, Biology & Biochemistry, Chemistry, Clinical Medicine, Economics & Business, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, Immunology, Microbiology, Multidisciplinary, Neuroscience & Behavior, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Physics, and Social Sciences—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of drinking water papers in those 15 fields that meet the top 10% threshold in ESI. Twenty-six (2.86%) of the papers analyzed qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers cover 7 fields—Chemistry, Clinical Medicine, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Microbiology, Multidisciplinary, and Pharmacology & Toxicology. Table 3 shows the 26 papers by field that meet the top 1% threshold in ESI. The citations for these 26 papers are provided in Tables 4 through 10. There was 1 (0.11%) very highly cited drinking water paper in the field of Multidisciplinary. The paper, which met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI, is listed in Table 11. None of the drinking water papers met the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is not surprising given that the expected number of papers that should meet this threshold for this analysis is 0.09.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers by Field (top 10%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of Papers in Field

Agricultural Sciences

73

4

18.25

22.22%

Biology & Biochemistry

156

4

39.00

14.81%

Chemistry

942

28

33.64

38.36%

Clinical Medicine

736

16

46.00

15.38%

Economics & Business

48

2

24.00

50.00%

Engineering

319

19

16.79

34.55%

Environment/Ecology

1,579

66

23.92

24.72%

Geosciences

2

1

2.00

20.00%

Immunology

193

2

96.50

7.69%

Microbiology

1,266

18

70.33

16.98%

Multidisciplinary

199

2

99.50

50.00%

Neuroscience & Behavior

57

1

57.00

7.14%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

1,638

24

68.25

16.90%

Physics

27

1

27.00

50.00%

Social Sciences, general

100

5

20.00

55.56%

 

Total = 7,335

Total = 193

38.00

21.21%

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers by Field (top 1%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

Chemistry

43

2

21.50

2.74%

Clinical Medicine

87

1

87.00

0.96%

Engineering

95

3

31.67

5.45%

Environment/Ecology

232

11

21.09

4.12%

Microbiology

318

2

159.00

1.89%

Multidisciplinary

199

2

99.50

50.00%

Pharmacology & Toxicology

761

5

152.20

3.52%

Total = 1,735

Total = 26

66.73

2.86%

Table 4. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of Chemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

20

Tufenkji N

Breakdown of colloid filtration theory: Role of the secondary energy minimum and surface charge heterogeneities. Langmuir 2005;21(3):841-852.

23

Richardson SD

Water analysis: emerging contaminants and current issues. Analytical Chemistry 2005;77(12):3807-3838.

Table 5. Highly Cited Drinking Water Paper in the Field of Clinical Medicine (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

87

Lindesmith L

Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nature Medicine 2003;9(5):548-553.

Table 6. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

57

Rice EW

Evaluating plant performance with endospores. Journal American Water Works Association 1996;88(9):122-130.

23

Xu JL

Microbial degradation of perchlorate: principles and applications. Environmental Engineering Science 2003;20(5):405-422.

15

Budde WL

Analytical mass spectrometry of herbicides. Mass Spectrometry Reviews 2004;23(1):1-24.

Table 7. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

59

Styblo M

The role of biomethylation in toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic: a research update. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 5):767-771.

59

Simpson JM

Microbial source tracking: state of the science. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(24):5279-5288.

51

Metcalfe CD

Distribution of acidic and neutral drugs in surface waters near sewage treatment plants in the lower Great Lakes, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2003;22(12):2881-2889.

26

Glassmeyer SD

Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(14):5157-5169.

4

Chiu WA

Issues in the pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene and its metabolites. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(9):1450-1456.

4

Craun GF

Observational epidemiologic studies of endemic waterborne risks: Cohort, case-control, time-series, and ecologic studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):101-120.

5

Colford J

A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):71-88.

5

Craun GF

Assessing waterborne risks: an introduction. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):3-18.

5

Calderon RL

Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):89-100.

6

Craun MF

Waterborne outbreaks reported in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):19-30.

8

Groffman P

Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13.

Table 8. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of Microbiology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

208

Fayer R

Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. International Journal for Parasitology 2000;30(12-13):1305-1322.

110

Morgan-Ryan UM

Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp (Apicomplexa : Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 2002;49(6):433-440.

Table 9. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of Multidisciplinary (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

65

Xu P

The genome of Cryptosporidium hominis. Nature 2004;431(7012):1107-1112.

134

Abrahamsen MS

Complete genome sequence of the apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum. Science 2004;304(5669):441-445.

Table 10. Highly Cited Drinking Water Papers in the Field of
Pharmacology & Toxicology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

183

Styblo M

Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Archives of Toxicology 2000;74(6):289-299.

134

Thomas DJ

The cellular metabolism and systemic toxicity of arsenic. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2001;176(2):127-144.

153

Mass MJ

Methylated trivalent arsenic species are genotoxic. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2001;14(4):355-361.

187

Kitchin KT

Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated arsenic metabolites. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2001;172(3):249-261.

104

Hughes MF

Arsenic toxicity and potential mechanisms of action. Toxicology Letters 2002;133(1):1-16.

Table 11. Very Highly Cited Drinking Water Paper (top 0.1%)

ESI Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Multidisciplinary

134

Abrahamsen MS

Complete genome sequence of the apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum. Science 2004;304(5669):441-445.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 14 of the 19 fields in which the EPA drinking water papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the drinking water papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 12). For all 19 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (13,632 to 8,944.60) is 1.52, indicating that the drinking water papers are more highly cited than the average paper.

Table 12. Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Cites for Drinking Water Papers by Field

ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Agricultural Sciences

130

95.80

1.36

Biology & Biochemistry

354

323.92

1.09

Chemistry

1,360

668.55

2.03

Clinical Medicine

1,575

1,166.73

1.35

Computer Science

6

4.02

1.49

Economics & Business

57

18.30

3.11

Engineering

442

194.77

2.27

Environment/Ecology

2,800

1,734.88

1.61

Geosciences

9

18.33

0.49

Immunology

569

514.70

1.10

Materials Science

0

0.22

0.00

Microbiology

2,212

1,357.75

1.63

Molecular Biology & Genetics

712

1,135.17

0.63

Multidisciplinary

199

14.06

14.15

Neuroscience & Behavior

204

221.60

0.92

Pharmacology & Toxicology

2,835

1,400.67

2.02

Physics

27

7.80

3.46

Plant & Animal Science

33

38.23

0.86

Social Sciences, general

108

29.10

3.71

TOTAL

13,632

8,944.60

1.52

JCR Benchmarks

Impact Factor. The JCR Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 13 indicates the number of drinking water papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Four hundred eleven (411) of 910 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 45.16% of EPA’s drinking water papers. This indicates that nearly one-half of the drinking water papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Impact Factor, which is 4.52 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 13. Drinking Water Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

Drinking Water Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor
(IF)

JCR IF Rank

2

Science

30.927

6

1

Nature

29.273

11

1

Nature Medicine

28.878

12

1

Lancet

23.878

17

1

Nature Biotechnology

22.738

20

1

Chemical Reviews

20.869

23

1

Mass Spectrometry Reviews

13.273

60

1

Genome Biology

9.712

106

1

Drug Discovery Today

7.755

151

1

Nucleic Acids Research

7.552

162

1

FASEB Journal

7.064

181

1

Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

6.462

201

1

Molecular Microbiology

6.203

213

1

Bioinformatics

6.019

224

1

Journal of Biological Chemistry

5.854

232

2

AIDS

5.835

234

24

Analytical Chemistry

5.635

242

29

Environmental Health Perspectives

5.342

257

3

Mutation Research—Reviews in Mutation Research

5.333

259

2

Emerging Infectious Diseases

5.308

264

5

Journal of Virology

5.178

278

5

Carcinogenesis

5.108

288

3

American Journal of Epidemiology

5.068

290

1

Critical Reviews in Toxicology

5.000

297

1

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

4.971

303

10

Journal of Infectious Diseases

4.953

307

1

Bioscience

4.708

336

1

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention

4.460

378

1

Pediatrics

4.272

420

1

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

4.258

425

4

TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry

4.088

460

55

Environmental Science & Technology

4.054

467

3

International Journal of Epidemiology

4.045

470

5

Epidemiology

4.043

471

1

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

4.015

481

9

Infection and Immunity

3.933

506

46

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.818

544

1

Ecological Applications

3.804

548

1

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development

3.778

555

1

Langmuir

3.705

569

1

Journal of Nutrition

3.689

574

1

Human Reproduction

3.669

581

11

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.640

591

5

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

3.625

594

1

Methods

3.591

610

9

Journal of Clinical Microbiology

3.537

630

2

Ecosystems

3.455

661

3

International Journal for Parasitology

3.346

695

8

Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

3.340

697

14

Chemical Research in Toxicology

3.339

700

1

Journal of Economic Geography

3.222

733

1

Microbiology-SGM

3.173

751

1

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

3.152

762

21

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

3.148

765

1

Reproduction

3.136

768

7

Journal of Chromatography A

3.096

779

30

Toxicological Sciences

3.088

781

1

Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology

3.080

786

1

Virology

3.080

786

7

Cancer Letters

3.049

801

45

Water Research

3.019

810

8

Analyst

2.858

877

1

Environment International

2.856

879

Total = 411

Immediacy Index. The JCR Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 14 indicates the number of drinking water papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Two hundred seventy-eight (278) of the 910 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 30.55% of the drinking water papers. This indicates that nearly one-third of the drinking water papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Immediacy Index, which is 3.06 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 14. Drinking Water in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

Drinking Water Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index
(II)

JCR II Rank

1

Lancet

7.347

5

1

Nature Medicine

6.600

6

2

Science

6.398

7

1

Nature

5.825

11

1

Nature Biotechnology

5.210

16

1

Chemical Reviews

4.523

23

1

Mass Spectrometry Reviews

2.220

76

3

International Journal of Epidemiology

1.791

111

10

Journal of Infectious Diseases

1.547

145

1

Molecular Microbiology

1.402

170

1

Nucleic Acids Research

1.391

173

2

International Journal of Toxicology

1.309

193

5

Epidemiology

1.298

198

1

Journal of Biological Chemistry

1.265

208

1

Genome Biology

1.230

221

1

FASEB Journal

1.181

238

4

Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research

1.143

251

1

Drug Discovery Today

1.125

257

1

Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

1.111

266

3

American Journal of Epidemiology

1.099

271

5

Journal of Virology

1.059

284

1

Pediatrics

1.005

309

1

Harmful Algae

0.976

331

29

Environmental Health Perspectives

0.955

346

1

Bioinformatics

0.944

354

2

AIDS

0.937

360

5

Carcinogenesis

0.935

362

2

Emerging Infectious Diseases

0.840

440

1

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

0.774

495

1

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.733

534

1

Bioscience

0.731

538

6

Science of the Total Environment

0.731

538

14

Chemical Research in Toxicology

0.729

542

1

Methods

0.720

558

24

Analytical Chemistry

0.713

569

1

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

0.696

585

1

Human Reproduction

0.693

596

8

Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

0.682

604

4

TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry

0.679

610

1

ATLA-Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

0.676

615

1

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews

0.667

628

1

Virology

0.664

638

1

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development

0.662

642

5

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

0.649

660

9

Infection and Immunity

0.648

663

4

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

0.628

698

30

Toxicological Sciences

0.617

715

1

Langmuir

0.610

723

1

Journal of Nutrition

0.598

741

1

Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases

0.585

767

1

Microbiology-SGM

0.571

800

7

Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology

0.571

800

8

Analyst

0.546

861

1

Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease

0.546

861

1

Ecological Applications

0.543

869

55

Environmental Science & Technology

0.541

874

Total = 278

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., March-April 2007), but there were a number of hot papers identified from previous periods.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 14 hot papers, representing 1.54% of the drinking water papers, were identified in four fields—Economics & Business, Environment/Ecology, Multidisciplinary, and Pharmacology & Toxicology. The number of drinking water hot papers is 15.4 times higher than expected. The hot papers are listed in Table 15.

Table 15. Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Economics & Business

3

3 cites in November 2002

Irwin EG, Bockstael NE. The problem of identifying land use spillovers: measuring the effects of open space on residential property values. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 2001;83(3):698-704.

4

4 cites in November 2002

Irwin EG, Bockstael NE. Interacting agents, spatial externalities and the evolution of residential land use patterns. Journal of Economic Geography 2002;2(1):31-54.

Environment/ Ecology

7

10 cites in July-August 2004

Styblo M, et al. The role of biomethylation in toxicity and carcinogenicity of arsenic: a research update. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(Suppl 5):767-771.

Environment/ Ecology

6

12 cites in December 2006-January 2007

Glassmeyer ST, et al. Transport of chemical and microbial compounds from known wastewater discharges: potential for use as indicators of human fecal contamination. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(14):5157-5169.

3

3 cites in September 2006

Chiu WA. Issues in the pharmacokinetics of trichloroethylene and its metabolites. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(9):1450-1456.

3

4 cites in June 2006

Craun GE, Calderon RL. Observational epidemiologic studies of endemic waterborne risks: cohort, case-control, time-series, and ecologic studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):101-120.

3

5 cites in June 2006

Colford Jr. JM, et al. A review of household drinking water intervention trials and an approach to the estimation of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):71-88.

3

5 cites in June 2006

Craun GF, et al. Assessing waterborne risks: an introduction. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):3-18.

3

5 cites in June 2006

Calderon Rl, Craun GF. Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):89-100.

3

6 cites in June 2006

Craun, et al. Waterborne outbreaks reported in the United States. Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):19-30.

3

3 cites in May-June 2006

Groffman P, et al. Ecological thresholds: the key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems 2006;9(1):1-13.

Multidisciplinary

9

9 cites in September-October 2004

Abrahamsen MS, et al. Complete genome sequence of the apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum. Science 2004;304(5669):441-445.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

6

7 cites in November-December 2002

Thomas DJ, et al. The cellular metabolism and systemic toxicity of arsenic. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2001;176(2):127-144.

9

11 cites in August-September 2004

Nesnow S, et al. DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2002;15(12):1627-1634.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the drinking water papers. Of the 13,632 total cites, 661 are author self-cites—a 4.85% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher3 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts4 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Kovacic and Misak5 recently reported a 20% author self-citation rate for medical literature. Therefore, the 4.85% self-cite rate for the drinking water papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

Highly Cited Researchers

A search of Thomson’s ISIHighlyCited.com exit EPA revealed that 20 (0.93%) of the 2,142 authors of the drinking water papers are highly cited researchers. ISIHighlyCited.com is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999. The highly cited researchers identified during this analysis of the drinking water publications are presented in Table 16.

Table 16. Highly Cited Researchers Authoring Drinking Water Publications

Highly Cited Researcher

Affiliation

ESI Field

Allen, Herbert E.

University of Delaware

Environment/Ecology

Anderson, Melvin E.

CIIT Centers for Health Research

Pharmacology

Birnbaum, Linda S.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Pharmacology

Boobis, Alan R.

Imperial College London

Pharmacology

Brusseau, Mark L.

University of Arizona

Environment/Ecology and Engineering

Dubey, Jitender P.

U.S. Department of Agriculture/ Agricultural Research Services

Plant & Animal Science

John, Giesy P.

University of Saskatchewan

Environment/Ecology

Glass, Roger I.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Microbiology

Groffman, Peter Mark

Institute of Ecosystem Studies

Environment/Ecology

Johnson, Kenneth M.

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

Pharmacology

Kimber, Ian

Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory

Pharmacology

Lindsay, David S.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Plant & Animal Science

Liu, Jie

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Pharmacology

Paerl, Hans E.

University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill Institute of Marine Sciences

Plant & Animal Science

Pearson, William R.

University of Virginia

Biology & Biochemistry

Schwartz, Joel D.

Harvard School of Public Health

Environment/Ecology

Thurman, E. Michael

U.S. Geological Survey

Environment/Ecology and Engineering

Truhlar, Donald G.

University of Minnesota

Chemistry

Turner, Monica G.

University of Wisconsin

Environment/Ecology

Wiens, John A.

Nature Conservancy

Environment/Ecology

Total = 20

   

Patents

There was 1 patent issued to an investigator during the period 1996 to 2006 for research that was conducted under EPA’s Drinking Water Research Program. This patent has been cited by one other patent. The patent and the patent that cites it are listed in Table 17.

Table 17. Patent from the Drinking Water Research Program (1996-2006)

Patent No.

Inventor(s)

Title

Patent Date

Patents that Referenced This Patent

6,365,048

Masten SJ
Yavich AA

Method for treatment of organic matter contaminated drinking water

4/2/02

Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,893,559 System and method for removing organic compounds from waste water by oxidation


1 Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,830 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality Web sources designed to support the literature research process. Scopus offers access to 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers, more than 12,850 academic journals (including coverage of 535 Open Access journals, 750 conference proceedings, and 600 trade publications), 27 million abstracts, 245 million references, 200 million scientific Web pages, and 13 million patent records.

3 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-210.

4 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

5 Kavaci N, Misak A. Author self-citation in medical literature. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(13):1929-1930.

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