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Bibliometric Analysis for Papers on Topics Related to Human Health
April 18, 2005

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) human health research program. For this analysis, 839 papers were reviewed. These 839 papers, published from 1997 to 2005, were cited 8,378 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science.1 Of these 839 papers, 697 (83%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

The analysis was completed using Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. The chief indicators of output, or productivity, are journal article publication counts. For influence and impact measures, ESI employs both total citation counts and cites per paper scores. The former reveals gross influence while the latter shows weighted influence, also called impact. JCR presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community.

Summary of Analysis

Nearly one-quarter of the human health publications are highly cited papers. A review of the citations indicates that 204 (24.3%) of the human health papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. Twenty-nine (3.5%) of the human health papers qualify as highly cited when using the criteria for the top 1%. Two (0.24%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited (in the top 0.1%), and one paper actually meets the top 0.01% threshold.

The human health papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 13 of the 17 fields in which the EPA human health papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the human health papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields.

Approximately one-half of the human health papers are published in very high impact journals. Four- hundred seventeen (417) of 839 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 49.7% of EPA’s human health papers. Nearly half of the human health papers are published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Factor. Three-hundred sixty-two (362) of the 839 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 43.2% of EPA’s human health papers.

Seven of the human health papers qualify as hot papers. ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 7 hot papers, representing 0.83% of the human health papers, were identified in the analysis.

The author self-citation rate is below average. Four-hundred fifteen (415) of the 8,378 cites are author self-cites. This 4.95% author self-citation rate is below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.

Highly Cited Human Health Publications

The 839 human health papers reviewed for this analysis covered 17 of the 22 ESI fields. The distribution of the papers among these 17 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Human Health Papers by ESI Fields

No. of Citations

ESI Field

No. of Human Health Papers

Average Cites/Paper

2,613

Environment/Ecology

266

10.18

2,453

Pharmacology & Toxicology

251

9.77

996

Biology & Biochemistry

97

10.27

601

Clinical Medicine

44

13.66

515

Molecular Biology & Genetics

24

21.21

372

Neuroscience & Behavior

53

7.02

290

Immunology

14

20.71

154

Chemistry

30

5.13

115

Engineering

27

4.26

109

Microbiology

9

12.11

66

Mathematics

9

7.33

57

Geosciences

2

28.50

18

Plant & Animal Science

5

3.60

15

Physics

3

5.00

2

Multidisciplinary

3

0.67

2

Economics & Business

1

2.00

0

Social Science, general

1

0.00

Total = 8,378

 

Total = 839

 

There were 204 (24.3% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA human health papers in 13 of the 17 fields—Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Biology & Biochemistry, Clinical Medicine, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Neuroscience & Behavior, Immunology, Chemistry, Engineering, Microbiology, Mathematics, Geosciences, and Plant & Animal Science—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of EPA papers in those 13 fields that met the top 10% threshold in ESI. Twenty-nine (3.5%) of the papers analyzed qualified as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers covered six fields—Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Clinical Medicine, Engineering, and Mathematics. Table 3 shows the 29 papers by field that met the top 1% threshold in ESI. There were two very highly cited EPA human health papers in two fields—Clinical Medicine and Pharmacology & Toxicology. These two papers met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI (0.24% of the papers analyzed). One of these human health papers actually met the top 0.01% threshold in ESI (i.e., the paper by Ding and Kaminsky).

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Human Health Papers by Field (top 10%)

Citations

ESI Field

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

1,864

Environment/Ecology

92

20.26

34.59%

1,467

Pharmacology & Toxicology

49

29.94

19.52%

466

Clinical Medicine

15

31.07

34.09%

371

Molecular Biology & Genetics

2

185.50

8.33%

349

Biology & Biochemistry

10

34.90

10.31%

127

Immunology

3

42.33

21.43%

100

Chemistry

4

25.00

13.33%

93

Neuroscience & Behavior

6

15.50

11.32%

91

Engineering

11

8.27

40.74%

80

Microbiology

4

20.00

44.44%

65

Mathematics

6

10.83

66.67%

39

Geosciences

1

39.00

50.00%

11

Plant & Animal Science

1

11.00

20.00%

 

Total =

204

   

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Human Health Papers by Field (top 1%)

Citations

ESI Field

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

647

Environment/Ecology

15

43.13

5.64%

359

Pharmacology & Toxicology

5

71.80

1.99%

325

Molecular Biology & Genetics

1

325.00

4.17%

203

Clinical Medicine

3

67.67

6.82%

46

Engineering

4

11.50

14.81%

9

Mathematics

1

9.00

11.11%

 

Total =

29

   

The citations for the highly cited papers in the top 1% are presented in Tables 4 through 9. The citations for the very highly cited papers (top 0.1%) are listed in Table 10.

Table 4. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of
Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

65

Eskenazi B

Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999;107(Suppl 3):409-419.

77

Landrigan PJ

Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999;107(Suppl 3):431-437.

93

Pope CN

Organophosphorus pesticides: do they all have the same mechanism of toxicity? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part B-Critical Reviews 1999;2(2):161-181.

81

Schwartz J

Fine particles are more strongly associated than coarse particles with acute respiratory health effects in schoolchildren. Epidemiology 2000;11(1):6-10.

102

Laden F

Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six US cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(10):941-947.

115

Rice D

Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(Suppl 3):511-533.

24

Whyatt RM

Residential pesticide use during pregnancy among a cohort of urban minority women. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(5):507-514.

11

Glenn BS

The longitudinal association of lead with blood pressure. Epidemiology 2003;14(1):30-36.

13

Curl CL

Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(3):377-382.

22

Birnbaum LS

Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(4):389-394.

24

Perera FP

Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(2):201-205.

4

DeMarini DM

Bioassay-directed fractionation and Salmonella mutagenicity of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(8):814-819.

4

Singh P

Sample characterization of automobile and forklift diesel exhaust particles and comparative pulmonary toxicity in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(8):820-825.

5

Buck GM

Prospective pregnancy study designs for assessing reproductive and developmental toxicants. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(1):79-86.

7

Ulrich RG

Overview of an interlaboratory collaboration on evaluating the effects of model hepatotoxicants on hepatic gene expression. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(4):423-427.

Table 5. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of
Pharmacology & Toxicology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

108

Laws SC

Estrogenic activity of octylphenol, nonylphenol, bisphenol A and methoxychlor in rats. Toxicological Sciences 2000;54(1):154-167.

114

Styblo M

Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Archives of Toxicology 2000;74(6):289-299.

70

Thomas DJ

The cellular metabolism and systemic toxicity of arsenic. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2001;176(2):127-144.

62

Ding XX

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

5

Stoker TE

Assessment of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture, in the EDSP male and female pubertal protocols. Toxicological Sciences 2004;78(1):144-155.

Table 6. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of
Molecular Biology & Genetics (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

325

Arbour NC

TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nature Genetics 2000;25(2):187-191.

Table 7. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of Clinical Medicine (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

43

Wang XB

Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. JAMA–Journal of the American Medical Association 2002;287(2):195-202.

71

McConnell R

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;359(9304):386-391.

89

Canfield RL

Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 : g per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(16): 1517-1526.

Table 8. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

21

Vette AF

Characterization of indoor-outdoor aerosol concentration relationships during the Fresno PM exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2001;34(1):118-126.

8

Landis MS

Atmospheric mercury in the Lake Michigan basin: influence of the Chicago/Gary urban area. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(21):4508-4517.

13

Miles AM

Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(8):1692-1698.

4

Sexton K

Comparison of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to hazardous air pollutants in three urban communities. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(2):423-430.

Table 9. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of Mathematics (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

9

Hattis D

Differences in pharmacokinetics between children and adults - II. Children’s variability in drug elimination half-lives and in some parameters needed for physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling. Risk Analysis 2003;23(1):117-142.

Table 10. Very Highly Cited Human Health Papers (Top 0.1%)

Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Clinical Medicine

89

Canfield RL

Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 : g per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(16):1517-1526.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

62

Ding XX2

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 13 of the 17 fields in which the EPA human health papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the EPA papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 11).

Table 11. Ratio of Average Cites to Expected Cites for Human Health Papers by Field

ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Environment/Ecology

2,613

1,135.67

2.30

Pharmacology & Toxicology

2,453

1,431.90

1.71

Biology & Biochemistry

996

985.86

1.01

Clinical Medicine

601

196.23

3.06

Molecular Biology & Genetics

515

349.93

1.47

Neuroscience & Behavior

372

408.35

0.91

Immunology

290

177.89

1.63

Chemistry

154

158.15

0.97

Engineering

115

41.49

2.77

Microbiology

109

64.17

1.70

Mathematics

66

13.11

5.03

Geosciences

57

17.26

3.30

Plant & Animal Science

18

8.68

2.07

Physics

15

17.88

0.84

Multidisciplinary

2

2.55

0.78

Economics & Business

2

1.41

1.42

Social Science, general

1

0.59

1.69

JCR Benchmarks

The Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 12 indicates the number of human health papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Four hundred-seventeen (417) of 839 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 49.7% of EPA’s human health papers.

Table 12. Human Health Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

EPA

Human Health Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor

(IF)

JCR IF Rank

94

Environmental Health Perspectives

3.408

538

90

Toxicological Sciences

3.067

648

44

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

2.851

750

11

American Journal of Physiology–Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

3.735

435

10

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

8.876

100

10

Environmental Science & Technology

3.592

487

10

Chemical Research in Toxicology

3.332

555

8

American Journal of Epidemiology

4.486

310

8

Epidemiology

4.220

350

8

Mutation Research–Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

3.433

530

7

Carcinogenesis

4.663

292

6

Pharmacogenetics

5.851

207

6

Pediatrics

3.781

427

5

Journal of Biological Chemistry

6.482

179

5

Biology of Reproduction

3.646

464

5

Journal of Applied Physiology

3.027

665

4

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention

4.720

288

4

Journal of Infectious Diseases

4.481

311

3

Lancet

18.316

28

3

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

10.272

81

3

Journal of Neuroscience

8.306

114

3

Journal of Immunology

6.702

167

3

Mutation Research–Reviews in Mutation Research

5.783

210

3

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.820

418

3

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

3.652

462

3

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

3.313

569

3

Journal of Pediatrics

2.913

722

3

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

2.836

757

2

New England Journal of Medicine

34.833

5

2

JAMA–Journal of the American Medical Association

21.455

22

2

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

5.692

215

2

Infection and Immunity

3.875

403

2

Chest

3.264

585

2

Journal of Geophysical Research

2.992

682

1

Nature Genetics

26.494

18

1

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

21.786

21

1

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

13.844

48

1

American Journal of Human Genetics

11.602

68

1

Annual Review of Medicine–Selected Topics in the Clinical Sciences

11.381

71

1

Circulation Research

10.117

84

1

Genome Research

9.635

90

1

Cancer Research

8.649

105

1

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

7.499

137

1

FASEB Journal

7.172

149

1

Cell Death and Differentiation

7.008

154

1

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

6.831

162

1

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

6.791

164

1

Neuroimage

6.192

186

1

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

5.063

260

1

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

4.820

278

1

Drug Metabolism Reviews

4.537

302

1

Thorax

4.188

356

1

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

4.148

361

1

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

4.105

380

1

American Journal of Physiology–Cell Physiology

4.103

364

1

Cancer

4.017

379

1

Neuropharmacology

3.801

421

1

Bipolar Disorders

3.658

460

1

Neuroscience

3.601

484

1

Glycobiology

3.490

518

1

Mental Retardation and Development Disabilities Research Reviews

3.479

522

1

American Journal of Public Health

3.363

551

1

Journal of Nutrition

3.321

563

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.200

605

1

Journal of Computational Chemistry

3.186

607

1

Human Reproduction

3.125

630

1

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

3.035

662

1

European Respiratory Journal

2.999

679

1

Biochemical Pharmacology

2.993

680

1

Journal of the American College of Nutrition

2.979

686

1

Journal of Chemical Physics

2.950

703

1

Journal of Chromatography A

2.922

719

1

Clinical Immunology

2.915

721

1

Gene

2.754

795

Total = 417

     

Immediacy Index

The journal Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 13 indicates the number of EPA human health papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Three-hundred sixty-two (362) of the 839 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 43.2% of EPA’s human health papers.

Table 13. Human Health Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

EPA

Human Health Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index

(II)

JCR II Rank

94

Environmental Health Perspectives

0.869

304

90

Toxicological Sciences

0.528

685

11

American Journal of Physiology–Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

0.654

496

10

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

2.461

56

10

Chemical Research in Toxicology

0.497

765

8

Epidemiology

0.938

264

8

American Journal of Epidemiology

0.908

281

8

Mutation Research–Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

0.721

420

8

Toxicologic Pathology

0.487

792

7

Carcinogenesis

0.775

379

6

Pharmacogenetics

0.921

271

6

Pediatrics

0.633

524

5

Journal of Biological Chemistry

1.231

160

5

Biology of Reproduction

0.735

409

5

American Journal of Industrial Medicine

0.616

552

4

Journal of Infectious Diseases

0.889

287

3

Lancet

5.826

10

3

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

1.935

245

3

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

1.465

123

3

Journal of Neuroscience

1.189

176

3

Journal of Immunology

0.988

239

3

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.791

368

3

Annals of Occupational Hygiene

0.661

487

3

Journal of Pediatrics

0.631

528

3

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

0.543

651

2

New England Journal of Medicine

11.719

2

2

JAMA–Journal of the American Medical Association

6.048

9

2

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

1.005

228

2

Journal of Geophysical Research

0.827

334

2

Infection and Immunity

0.624

544

2

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

0.559

623

2

Chest

0.500

745

1

Nature Genetics

8.631

4

1

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

4.520

20

1

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

3.293

32

1

Annual Review of Medicine–Selected Topics in the Clinical Sciences

2.871

43

1

American Journal of Human Genetics

2.603

53

1

Genome Research

1.626

110

1

Circulation Research

1.625

111

1

Cell Death and Differentiation

1.548

118

1

FASEB Journal

1.247

154

1

Thorax

1.237

158

1

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

1.220

163

1

American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

1.024

216

1

Cancer Research

0.935

268

1

Glycobiology

0.883

296

1

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

0.828

332

1

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

0.817

342

1

Cancer

0.796

361

1

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews

0.788

371

1

Bipolar Disorders

0.770

380

1

Birth Defects Research Part B–Development and Reproductive Toxicology

0.762

390

1

American Journal of Physiology–Cell Physiology

0.719

422

1

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

0.712

432

1

American Journal of Public Health

0.682

465

1

Journal of Chemical Physics

0.661

487

1

Journal of Nutrition

0.647

507

1

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

0.644

511

1

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

0.623

546

1

Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

0.590

586

1

Cell Stress and Chaperones

0.562

618

1

Human Reproduction

0.560

621

1

Drug Metabolism Reviews

0.556

628

1

Neuropharmacology

0.525

689

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

0.523

694

1

Neuroscience

0.521

706

1

Journal of Chromatography A

0.517

715

1

Journal of Computational Chemistry

0.512

728

Total = 362

     

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., February-March 2005), but there were a number of hot papers identified from previous periods.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 7 hot papers, representing 0.83% of the human health papers, were identified in five fields—Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Engineering, Chemistry, and Clinical Medicine. The hot papers are listed in Table 14.

Table 14. Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Environment/Ecology

8

8 cites in April-May 2004

Perera FP, Rauh V, Tsai WY, et al. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(2):201-205.

   

9 cites in September-October 2002

Laden F, Neas LM, Dockery DW, et al. Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six US cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(10):941-947.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

8

8 cites in July-August 2002

Styblo M, Del Razo LM, Vega L, et al. Comparative toxicity of trivalent and pentavalent inorganic and methylated arsenicals in rat and human cells. Archives of Toxicology 2000;74(6):289-299.

   

9 cites in September- October 2004

Ding XX, Kaminsky LS. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Engineering

4

4 cites in November-December 2003

Miles AM, Singer PC, Ashley DL, et al. Comparison of trihalomethanes in tap water and blood. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(8): 1692-1698.

Chemistry

8

11 cites in August-September 2004

Nesnow S, Roop BC, Lambert G, et al. DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2002;15(12):1627-1634.

Clinical Medicine

10

13 cites in November-December 2004

Canfield RL, Henderson CR, Cory-Slechta DA, et al. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 : g per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(16):1517-1526.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the human health papers. Of the 8,378 total cites, 415 are author self-cites—a 4.95% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher3 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts4 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Therefore, the 4.95% self-cite rate for the human health papers is below the range for author self-citation.

1Thomsons Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,700 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 This paper by Ding and Kaminsky also met the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is the highest threshold.

3 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-201.

4 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

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