Jump to main content or area navigation.

Contact Us

Extramural Research

Bibliometrics

Research Project Search

Extramural Research Search

Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Developments Human Health Research Program
December 2006

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the Human Health Research Program. For this analysis, 1,835 papers were reviewed, and they were published from 1997 to 2006. These publications were cited 22,937 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science1 and Scopus 2. Of these 1,835 publications, 1,561 (85%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

Searches of Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science and Scopus were conducted to obtain times cited data for the human health journal publications. The analysis was completed using Thomson’s Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. For influence and impact measures, ESI employs both total citation counts by field and cites per paper scores. The former reveals gross influence while the latter shows weighted influence, also called impact. JCR is a recognized authority for evaluating journals. It presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community. The two key measures used in this analysis to assess the journals in which the EPA human health papers are published are the Impact Factor and Immediacy Index. The Impact Factor is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to other journals in the same field. The Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the “average article” in a journal is cited. This index indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the same year and it is useful in comparing how quickly journals are cited.

The report includes a summary of the results of the analysis, an analysis of the 1,835 human health papers analyzed by ESI field (e.g., clinical medicine, environment/ecology, plant & animal science), an analysis of the journals in which the human health papers were published, a table of the highly cited researchers in the Human Health Research Program, and a list of the patents and patent applications resulting from the program.

Summary of Results

  1. One-quarter of the human health publications are highly cited papers. A review of the citations indicates that 462 (25%) of the human health papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. This is 2.5 times the number expected. Sixty-four (3.5%) of the human health papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1%, which is 3.5 times the number expected. Six (0.33%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited when using the criteria for the top 0.1%, which is 3.3 times the number anticipated. As expected, no papers actually meet the 0.01% threshold for the most highly cited papers (the expected number for this size program is 0.18 papers in the most highly cited category).
  2. The human health papers are more highly cited than the average paper.  Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 16 of the 21 fields in which the EPA human health papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the human health papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields. For all 16 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (22,937 to 13,742.39) is 1.67, indicating that the human health papers are more highly cited than the average paper.
  3. More than half of the human health papers are published in high impact journals.Nine hundred thirty-two (932) of the 1,835 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 51% of EPA’s human health papers. This number is more than 5 times higher than expected. Nine hundred thirty-eight (938) of the 1,835 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 51% of EPA’s human health papers. This number is also more than 5 times higher than expected.
  4. Fifteen of the human health papers qualify as hot papers. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 15 hot papers, representing 0.8% of the human health papers, were identified in the analysis. Hot papers are papers that were highly cited shortly after they were published. The number of human health hot papers is 8 times higher than expected.
  5. The authors of the human health papers cite themselves much less than the average author. Nine hundred ninety-two (992) of the 22,937 cites are author self-cites. This 4.3% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.
  6. Eighty-one of the authors of the human health papers are included in ISIHighlyCited.com,which is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999.

Highly Cited Human Health Publications

The 1,835 human health papers reviewed for this analysis covered 21 of the 22 ESI fields. The distribution of the papers among these 21 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Human Health Papers by ESI Fields

No. of Citations

ESI Field

No. of EPA
HH Papers

Average
Cites/Paper

6,313

Clinical Medicine

469

13.46

5,809

Pharmacology & Toxicology

472

12.31

5,706

Environment/Ecology

424

13.46

1,107

Molecular Biology & Genetics

78

14.19

920

Biology & Biochemistry

76

12.10

824

Immunology

29

28.41

757

Neuroscience & Behavior

91

8.32

225

Chemistry

40

5.62

212

Engineering

33

6.42

186

Multidisciplinary

11

16.91

183

Geosciences

14

13.07

176

Microbiology

16

11.00

146

Social Sciences, General

38

3.84

134

Agricultural Sciences

12

11.17

82

Mathematics

6

13.67

62

Plant & Animal Science

11

5.64

61

Psychiatry/Psychology

6

10.17

24

Computer Science

4

6.00

7

Economics & Business

2

3.50

2

Physics

1

2.00

1

Material Sciences

2

0.50

Total = 22,937

Total = 1,835

12.50

There are 462 (25.2% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA human health papers in 18 of the 21 fields—Clinical Medicine, Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Immunology, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Biology & Biochemistry, Engineering, Multidisciplinary, Geosciences, Neuroscience & Behavior, Social Sciences, General, Chemistry, Agricultural Sciences, Mathematics, Psychiatry/Psychology, Microbiology, Computer Science, and Plant & Animal Science—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of EPA papers in those 18 fields that meet the top 10% threshold in ESI. Sixty-four (3.5%) of the papers analyzed qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers cover 10 fields—Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Clinical Medicine, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Immunology, Multidisciplinary, Agricultural Sciences, Engineering, Biology & Biochemistry, and Plant & Animal Science. Table 3 shows the 64 papers by field that meet the top 1% threshold in ESI. The citations for these 64 papers are provided in Tables 4 through 13. There were 6 (0.33%) very highly cited human health paper in the fields of Environment/Ecology, Clinical Medicine, and Plant & Animal Science. These papers, which met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI, are listed in Table 14. None of the human health papers actually met the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is to be expected.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Human Health Papers by Field (top 10%)

Citations

ESI Field

No. of
Papers

Average
Cites/Paper

% of EPA
Papers in Field

4,049

Clinical Medicine

125

32.39

26.65%

3,939

Environment/Ecology

140

28.14

33.02%

3,626

Pharmacology & Toxicology

117

30.99

24.79%

576

Immunology

5

115.20

17.24%

575

Molecular Biology & Genetics

3

191.67

3.85%

410

Biology & Biochemistry

13

31.54

17.11%

182

Engineering

12

15.17

36.36%

159

Multidisciplinary

5

31.80

45.45%

143

Geosciences

5

28.60

35.71%

110

Neuroscience & Behavior

4

27.50

4.40%

108

Social Sciences, General

11

9.82

28.95%

107

Chemistry

7

15.28

17.50%

105

Agricultural Sciences

3

35.00

25.00%

80

Mathematics

5

16.00

83.33%

44

Psychiatry/Psychology

2

22.00

33.33%

21

Microbiology

1

21.00

6.25%

20

Computer Science

2

10.00

50.00%

20

Plant & Animal Science

2

10.00

18.18%

Total = 14,274

 

Total = 462

30.90

25.18%

Table 3.  Number of Highly Cited Human Health Papers by Field (top 1%)

Citations

ESI Field

No. of Papers

Average
Cites/Paper

% of EPA
Papers in Field

1,342

Environment/Ecology

30

44.73

7.08%

1,096

Pharmacology & Toxicology

16

68.50

3.39%

805

Clinical Medicine

11

73.18

2.35%

473

Molecular Biology & Genetics

1

473.00

1.28%

356

Immunology

1

356.00

3.45%

79

Multidisciplinary

1

79.00

9.09%

78

Agricultural Sciences

1

78.00

8.33%

37

Engineering

1

37.00

3.03%

19

Biology & Biochemistry

1

19.00

1.32%

6

Plant & Animal Science

1

6.00

9.09%

Total = 4,291

Total = 64

67.05

3.49%

Table 4. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

104

Eskenazi B

Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999; 107(Suppl 3):409-419.

100

Landrigan PJ

Pesticides and inner-city children: exposures, risks, and prevention. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999;107(Suppl 3):431-437.

192

Rice D

Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: Evidence from humans and animal models. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(Suppl 3):511-533.

175

Laden F

Association of fine particulate matter from different sources with daily mortality in six US cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000;108(10):941-947.

54

Lioy PJ

Characterization of the dust/smoke aerosol that settled east of the World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan after the collapse of the WTC 11 September 2001. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110(7):703-714.

68

Schecter A

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in US mothers’ milk. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(14):1723:1729.

55

Birnbaum LS

Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(4):389-394.

53

Perera FP

Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(2):201-205.

45

Longnecker MP

Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(1):65-70.

38

Curl CL

Organophosphorus pesticide exposure of urban and suburban preschool children with organic and conventional diets. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(3):377-382.

37

Berkowitz GS

Exposure to indoor pesticides during pregnancy in a multiethnic, urban cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(1):79-84.

37

Whyatt RM

Contemporary-use pesticides in personal air samples during pregnancy and blood samples at delivery among urban minority mothers and newborns. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(5):749-756.

78

Birnbaum LS

Brominated flame retardants: Cause for concern? Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(1):9-17.

40

Berkowitz GS

In utero pesticide exposure, maternal paraoxonase activity, and head circumference. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(3):388-391.

35

Whyatt RM

Prenatal insecticide exposures and birth weight and length among an urban minority cohort. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(10):1125-1132.

32

Eskenazi B

Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(10):1116-1124.

25

Ulrich RG

Overview of an interlaboratory collaboration on evaluating the effects of model hepatotoxicants on hepatic gene expression. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(4):423-427.

24

Landrigan PJ

Health and environmental consequences of the World Trade Center disaster. Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(6):731-739.

25

Kunzli N

Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(2):201-206.

18

Stapleton HM

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust and clothes dryer lint. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(4):925-931.

16

Lanphear BP

Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(7):894-899.

16

Shafer TJ

Developmental neurotoxicity of pyrethroid insecticides: Critical review and future research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(2):123-136.

16

Yolton K

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and cognitive abilities among US children and adolescents. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(1):98-103.

14

Trasande L

Public health and economic consequences of methyl mercury toxicity to the developing brain. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(5):590-596.

11

Sapkota A

Impact of the 2002 Canadian forest fires on particulate matter air quality in Baltimore City. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(1):24-32.

10

Merchant JA

Asthma and farm exposures in a cohort of rural Iowa children. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(3):350-356.

10

Kissel JC

Comparison of organophosphorus pesticide metabolite levels in single and multiple daily urine samples collected from preschool children in Washington State. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 2005;15(2):164-171.

6

Lu CS

Organic diets significantly lower children’s dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(2):260-263.

5

Calderon RL

Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies.  Journal of Water and Health 2006;4(Suppl 2):89-100.

3

Selgrade MK

Induction of asthma and the environment: What we know and need to know. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(4):615-619.

Table 6. Highly Cited Human Health Papers in the Field of Clinical Medicine (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

144

Pope CN

Organophosphorus pesticides: do they all have the same mechanism of toxicity? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part B-Critical Reviews 1999;2(2):161-181.

125

McConnell R

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;359(9304):386-391.

97

Cho HY

Role of NRF2 in protection against hyperoxic lung injury in mice. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 2002;26(2): 175-182.

205

Canfield RL

Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 μg per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(16):1571-1526.

87

Pope CA

Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution - epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation 2004;109(1):71-77.

48

Gauderman WJ

The effect of air pollution on lung development from 10 to 18 years of age. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(11):1057-1067.

47

Gilliland FD

Effect of glutathlone-S-transferase M1 and P1 genotypes on xenoblotic enhancement of allergic responses: randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study. Lancet 2004;363(9403):119-125.

19

Riedl M

Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005;115(2):221-228.

17

Alberg AJ

Epidemiology of lung cancer: Looking to the future. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23(14):3175-3185.

12

Dominici F

Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;295(10):1127-1134.

4

Engel SM

Xenobiotic phenols in early pregnancy amniotic fluid. Reproductive Toxicology 2006;21(1):110-112.

Table 7. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of Molecular
Biology & Genetics (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

473

Arbour NC

TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nature Genetics 2000;25(2):187-191.

Table 8. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of Immunology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

356

Wills-Karp M

Immunologic basis of antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Annual Review of Immunology 1999;17:255-281.

Table 9. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of Multidisciplinary (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

79

Brenner DJ

Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: assessing what we really know. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2003;100(24):13761-13766.

Table 10. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of
Agricultural Sciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

78

Birnbaum LS

Non-carcinogenic effects of TCDD in animals. Food Additives and Contaminants 2000;17(4):275-288.

Table 11. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

37

Vette AF

Characterization of indoor-outdoor aerosol concentration relationships during the Fresno PM exposure studies. Aerosol Science and Technology 2001;34(1):118-126.

Table 12. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of
Biology & Biochemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

19

Kadiiska MB

Biomarkers of oxidative stress study II. Are oxidation products of lipids, proteins, and DNA markers of CCl4 poisoning? Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2005;38(6):698-710.

Table 13. Highly Cited Human Health Paper in the Field of
Plant & Animal Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

6

Evenson DP

Clinical aspects of sperm DNA fragmentation detection and male infertility. Theriogenology 2006;65(5):979-991.

Table 14. Very Highly Cited Human Health Papers (top 0.1%)

ESI Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Clinical Medicine

205

Canfield RL

Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 mu g per deciliter. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(16):1571-1526.

 

12

Dominici F

Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association 2006;295(10):1127-1134.

Environment/ Ecology

78

Birnbaum LS

Brominated flame retardants: Cause for concern? Environmental Health Perspectives 2004;112(1):9-17.

 

25

Kunzli N

Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(2):201-206.

 

6

Lu CS

Organic diets significantly lower children’s dietary exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114(2):260-263.

Plant & Animal Science

6

Evenson DP

Clinical aspects of sperm DNA fragmentation detection and male infertility. Theriogenology 2006;65(5):979-991.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 16 of the 21 fields in which the EPA human health papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the human health papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 15).

Table 15. Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Cites for Human Health Papers by Field

ESI Field

Total
Cites

Expected
Cite Rate

Ratio

Agricultural Sciences

134

39.99

3.35

Biology & Biochemistry

920

823.48

1.12

Chemistry

225

282.44

0.80

Clinical Medicine

6,313

3,397.59

1.86

Computer Science

24

7.03

3.41

Economics & Business

7

5.83

1.20

Engineering

212

78.68

2.69

Environment/Ecology

5,706

2,512.79

2.27

Geosciences

183

79.25

2.31

Immunology

824

426.91

1.93

Material Sciences

1

1.60

0.62

Mathematics

82

20.62

3.98

Microbiology

176

163.88

1.07

Molecular Biology & Genetics

1,107

1,291.71

0.86

Multidisciplinary

186

42.11

4.42

Neuroscience & Behavior

757

1,010.10

0.75

Pharmacology & Toxicology

5,809

3,396.03

1.71

Physics

2

5.21

0.38

Plant & Animal Science

62

47.12

1.32

Psychiatry/Psychology

61

30.70

1.99

Social Sciences, General

146

79.32

1.84

JCR Benchmarks

Impact Factor. The JCR Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 16 indicates the number of human health papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Nine hundred thirty-two (932) of 1,835 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 51% of EPA’s human health papers. This indicates that more than half of the human health papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR impact factor, which is more than 5 times the expected percentage.

Table 16. Human Health Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

EPA Human Health Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor

(IF)

JCR IF Rank

1

Annual Review of Immunology

47.400

2

3

New England Journal of Medicine

44.016

3

3

Science

30.927

6

1

Nature Immunology

27.011

14

1

Nature Genetics

25.797

15

5

Lancet

23.407

18

7

JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association

23.332

19

2

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

19.833

24

1

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

15.171

41

2

American Journal of Human Genetics

12.649

63

1

Journal of Clinical Oncology

11.810

70

1

Circulation

11.632

74

1

Progress in Lipid Research

11.372

75

2

Annual Review of Medicine

10.383

86

8

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

10.231

89

1

Genome Research

10.139

91

2

Genome Biology

9.712

106

1

Circulation Research

9.408

111

2

British Medical Journal

9.052

122

24

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

8.689

126

1

PLoS Medicine

8.389

133

3

Archives of Internal Medicine

8.016

139

1

Cell Death and Differentiation

7.785

149

1

Human Molecular Genetics

7.764

150

3

Drug Discovery Today

7.755

151

1

Clinical Chemistry

7.717

153

33

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

7.667

155

3

Cancer Research

7.616

157

1

Nucleic Acids Research

7.552

162

1

Brain

7.535

163

3

Journal of Neuroscience

7.506

165

2

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

7.240

176

3

FASEB Journal

7.064

181

1

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

7.053

182

5

Journal of Immunology

6.387

205

2

Thorax

6.150

216

3

Bioinformatics

6.019

224

9

Pharmacogenetics

5.882

229

10

Journal of Biological Chemistry

5.854

232

3

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

5.853

233

1

Clinical Cancer Research

5.715

238

224

Environmental Health Perspectives

5.342

257

4

Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research

5.333

259

2

Endocrinology

5.313

261

1

Neuroimage

5.288

267

11

Carcinogenesis

5.108

288

24

American Journal of Epidemiology

5.068

290

1

Genetic Epidemiology

5.064

291

13

Critical Reviews in Toxicology

5.000

296

6

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

4.971

302

4

Journal of Infectious Diseases

4.953

306

3

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

4.926

313

1

Current Opinion in Neurology

4.873

319

1

Bipolar Disorders

4.812

328

1

Cancer

4.800

329

1

International Journal of Cancer

4.700

338

1

Physiological Genomics

4.636

346

1

Biostatistics

4.529

361

13

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention

4.460

378

1

Human Genetics

4.331

402

11

Pediatrics

4.272

420

2

Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

4.232

427

8

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

4.098

456

1

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

4.091

458

1

Genes Brain and Behavior

4.091

458

21

Environmental Science & Technology

4.054

467

17

Epidemiology

4.043

471

7

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

4.015

481

4

Chest

4.008

482

10

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

3.988

488

1

Obesity Research

3.972

491

1

European Journal of Neuroscience

3.949

495

2

European Respiratory Journal

3.947

497

2

American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology

3.942

500

21

American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

3.939

502

2

Infection and Immunity

3.933

506

2

Journal of Lipid Research

3.909

516

7

Journal of Pediatrics

3.837

541

4

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.818

544

1

Journal of Computational Chemistry

3.786

551

1

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development

3.778

555

1

Journal of Nutrition

3.689

574

3

Human Reproduction

3.669

581

1

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

3.643

589

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.640

591

1

Neuropharmacology

3.637

592

2

Pharmacogenomics

3.623

596

2

Biochemical Pharmacology

3.617

600

7

Biology of Reproduction

3.583

615

4

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

3.566

619

4

American Journal of Public Health

3.566

619

3

American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology

3.560

623

2

Clinical and Experimental Allergy

3.553

625

1

Glycobiology

3.512

635

3

Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

3.508

638

1

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society

3.479

649

2

Neuroscience

3.410

676

14

Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

3.340

696

20

Chemical Research in Toxicology

3.339

699

4

Clinical Immunology

3.217

733

1

Lung Cancer

3.172

753

3

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

3.152

761

74

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

3.148

764

1

Journal of Chemical Physics

3.138

766

1

Shock

3.122

769

1

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

3.122

769

1

Radiation Research

3.099

776

1

Journal of Chromatography A

3.096

778

152

Toxicological Sciences

3.088

780

2

American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

3.083

782

1

Behavioral Neuroscience

3.071

790

5

Cancer Letters

3.049

800

5

Journal of Applied Physiology

3.037

802

1

Water Research

3.019

809

1

Journal of General Internal Medicine

3.013

810

1

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

3.003

817

4

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

3.000

819

1

Journal of Neuroendocrinology

2.974

839

1

Pediatric Research

2.875

870

1

Cell Stress & Chaperones

2.875

870

Total = 932

     

Immediacy Index. The JCR Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 17 indicates the number of human health papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Nine hundred thirty-eight (938) of the 1,835 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 51% of the human health papers. This indicates that more than half of the human health papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR immediacy index, which is more than 5 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 17. Human Health Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

EPA Human Health Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index

(II)

JCR II Rank

3

New England Journal of Medicine

13.422

3

1

Annual Review of Immunology

10.828

4

3

Science

6.398

6

5

Lancet

6.253

7

1

Nature Genetics

5.921

10

2

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

5.793

12

1

Nature Immunology

5.362

15

7

JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association

5.082

17

2

British Medical Journal

4.248

26

1

Journal of the National Cancer Institute

4.063

27

2

Annual Review of Medicine

4.033

28

1

PLoS Medicine

4.033

28

1

BMC Genetics

3.717

35

2

American Journal of Human Genetics

2.959

49

1

Journal of Clinical Oncology

2.831

55

33

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

2.402

64

1

Genome Research

2.000

92

24

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

1.883

104

3

Archives of Internal Medicine

1.782

113

8

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

1.746

121

1

Circulation Research

1.702

126

1

Circulation

1.641

134

1

Human Molecular Genetics

1.621

135

1

Cell Death and Differentiation

1.602

136

2

Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

1.583

139

4

Journal of Infectious Diseases

1.547

145

1

Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

1.452

157

1

Nucleic Acids Research

1.391

173

1

International Journal of Toxicology

1.309

193

17

Epidemiology

1.298

198

1

Brain

1.266

207

10

Journal of Biological Chemistry

1.265

208

2

Endocrinology

1.260

210

3

Journal of Neuroscience

1.254

212

2

Genome Biology

1.230

221

3

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

1.200

227

1

Journal of Community Psychology

1.200

227

3

FASEB Journal

1.181

239

4

Mutation Research-Reviews in Mutation Research

1.143

252

2

Journal of the American Society of Nephrology

1.129

257

3

Drug Discovery Today

1.125

258

24

American Journal of Epidemiology

1.099

271

2

Thorax

1.097

273

1

Physiological Genomics

1.058

287

1

International Journal of Cancer

1.016

306

11

Pediatrics

1.005

309

3

Cancer Research

1.001

310

224

Environmental Health Perspectives

0.955

346

23

Inhalation Toxicology

0.947

352

1

Genetic Epidemiology

0.945

353

3

Bioinformatics

0.944

354

2

Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

0.942

356

3

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

0.937

360

11

Carcinogenesis

0.935

362

1

Biostatistics

0.933

363

1

Progress in Lipid Research

0.929

366

2

European Respiratory Journal

0.916

372

5

Journal of Immunology

0.906

381

8

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

0.891

397

4

Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine

0.875

411

2

Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology

0.868

416

2

Journal of Lipid Research

0.855

426

1

Clinical Cancer Research

0.846

434

1

Clinical Chemistry

0.839

441

21

American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology

0.816

464

1

Neuropeptides

0.812

467

2

American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology

0.808

473

4

American Journal of Public Health

0.805

475

3

Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

0.774

495

3

American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology

0.757

505

7

Biology of Reproduction

0.755

507

10

American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology

0.745

517

1

Glycobiology

0.736

530

1

Lung Cancer

0.735

532

7

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.733

534

5

Journal of Applied Physiology

0.732

537

1

Journal of Computational Chemistry

0.731

538

10

Science of the Total Environment

0.731

538

20

Chemical Research in Toxicology

0.729

542

1

Shock

0.718

559

1

Journal of Chemical Physics

0.710

572

1

Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry

0.696

585

6

Free Radical Biology and Medicine

0.696

585

3

Human Reproduction

0.693

596

1

Genes Brain and Behavior

0.690

598

14

Mutation Research-Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

0.682

604

1

ATLA-Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

0.676

615

1

Neuroimage

0.668

627

2

Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews

0.667

628

1

Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development

0.662

642

7

Journal of Pediatrics

0.660

645

2

Infection and Immunity

0.648

664

1

Cancer

0.641

677

1

Human Genetics

0.639

679

2

Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres

0.630

696

11

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment

0.628

699

2

American Journal of Managed Care

0.624

705

152

Toxicological Sciences

0.617

716

1

Journal of Nutrition

0.598

742

1

Neurobiology of Learning and Memory

0.593

754

1

Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry

0.593

754

1

Medical Decision Making

0.585

768

1

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

0.580

783

13

Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention

0.579

785

73

Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology

0.571

801

2

Archives of Disease in Childhood

0.569

810

1

Journal of the American Dietetic Association

0.559

830

2

Neuroscience

0.555

842

1

Neuropharmacology

0.552

843

25

Environmental Research

0.551

848

7

American Journal of Industrial Medicine

0.549

858

1

Analyst

0.546

862

Total = 938

     

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., July-August 2006), but there were a number of hot papers identified from previous periods.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 15 hot papers, representing 0.8% of the human health papers, were identified in three fields—Clinical Medicine, Environment/Ecology, and Pharmacology & Toxicology. The hot papers are listed in Table 18.

Table 18. Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Clinical Medicine

4

5 cites in June-July 2005

Alberg AJ, et al. Epidemiology of lung cancer: looking to the future. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23(14):3175-3185.

Environment/ Ecology

7

7 cites in May-June 2004

Perera FP, et al. Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(2):201-205.

 

5

6 cites in December 2005-January 2006

Kunzli N, et al. Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(2):201-206.

 

5

5 cites in April-May 2006

Lanphear BP, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(7):894-899.

 

3

3 cites in April-May 2004

Sexton K, et al. Comparison of personal, indoor, and outdoor exposures to hazardous air pollutants in three urban communities. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(2):423-430.

Environment/ Ecology

3

3 cites in March-April 2001

Garman RH, et al. Methods to identify and characterize developmental neurotoxicity for human health risk assessment. II: Neuropathology. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001;109(Suppl 1):93-100.

 

3

3 cites in November-December 2003

Schreinemachers DM. Birth malformations and other adverse perinatal outcomes in four US wheat-producing states. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(9): 1259-1264.

 

3

3 cites in August-September 2005

Neednam LL, et al. Exposure assessment in the National Children’s Study: Introduction. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(8):1076-1082.

 

3

3 cites in May-June 2005

Yolton K, et al. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and cognitive abilities among US children and adolescents. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005;113(1):98-103.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

8

11 cites in August-September 2004

Nesnow S, et al. DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2002;15(12):1627-1634.

 

8

10 cites in November-December 2002

Kitchin KT. Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: Modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated arsenic metabolites. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2001;172(3):249-261.

 

2

3 cites in January-February 2006

Carmichael NG, et al. Agricultural chemical safety assessment: A multisector approach to the modernization of human safety requirements. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2006;36(1):1-7.

 

2

3 cites in January-February 2006

Cooper RL, et al. A tiered approach to life stages testing for agricultural chemical safety assessment. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 2006;36(1):69-98.

 

2

2 cites in September-October 2006

Anand SS, et al. Characterization of deltamethrin metabolism by rat plasma and liver microsomes. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006;212(2):156-166.

 

2

2 cites in June-July 1999

Faustman EM, et al. Biologically based dose-response models for developmental toxicants: lessons from methylmercury. Inhalation Toxicology 1999;11(6-7):559-572.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the human health papers. Of the 22,937 total cites, 992 are author self-cites—a 4.3% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher[3] found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts[4] claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Kovacic and Misak[5] recently reported a 20% author self-citation rate for medical literature. Therefore, the 4.3% self-cite rate for the human health papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

Highly Cited Researchers

A search of Thomson’s ISIHighlyCited.com revealed that 81 (3.3%) of the 2,432 authors of the human health papers are highly cited researchers. ISIHighlyCited.com is a database of the world’s most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999. The highly cited researchers identified during this analysis of the human health publications are presented in Table 19.

Table 19. Highly Cited Researchers Authoring Human Health Publications

Highly Cited Researcher

Affiliation

ESI Field

Amaral, David G.

University of California–Davis

Neuroscience

Ames, Bruce N.

Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute

Biology & Biochemistry
Molecular Biology & Genetics

Andersen, Melvin E.

CIIT Centers for Health Research

Pharmacology

Ankley, Gerald T

U.S. EPA

Environment/Ecology

Arey Janet

Air Pollution Research Center

Environment/Ecology

Atkinson, Roger

Air Pollution Research Center

Environment/Ecology

Benowitz, Neil L.

University of California–San Francisco

Pharmacology

Birnbaum, Linda S.

U.S. EPA

Pharmacology

Bishop, John Michael

University of California–San Francisco

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Boobis, Alan R.

Imperial College London

Pharmacology

Breslau, Naomi

Michigan State University

Psychology/Psychiatry

Chapman, Martin D.

INDOOR Biotechnologies, Inc.

Immunology

Clegg, William

University of Newcastle upon Tyne

Chemistry

Eisenreich, Steven J.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersy

Environment/Ecology

Elliott, Lloyd F.

Oregon State University

Environment/Ecology

Evans, David A.

Harvard University

Chemistry

Fischer, Jean

Chemistry

Chemistry

Fornace Jr., Albert J

Harvard School of Public Health

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Garcia, Rolando R.

National Center for Atmospheric Research

Geosciences

German, J. Bruce

University of California–Davis

Agricultural Sciences

Goldman, John M.

Imperial College School of Medicine

Clinical Medicine

Goldman, Lee

University of California–San Francisco

Clinical Medicine

Gray Jr., Leon Earl

U.S. EPA

Pharmacology

Greenberg, Everett P.

University of Iowa

Microbiology

Guillette, Louis J.

University of Florida

Environment/Ecology

Harris, Curtis C.

National Cancer Institute

Clinical Medicine

Jones, Russell L.

University of California–Berkeley

Plant & Animal Science

Kadlubar, Fred F.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Pharmacology

Kimber, Ian

Syngenta Central Toxicology Laboratory

Pharmacology

Koutrakis, Petros

Harvard School of Public Health

Environment/Ecology

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

University of North Carolina

Agricultural Sciences

Levin, Simon A.

Princeton University

Environment/Ecology

Levine, Michael

University of California–Berkeley

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Lewis, Jack

University of Cambridge

Chemistry

Liang, Kung Yee

Johns Hopkins University

Mathematics

Lindberg, Steven E.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Environment/Ecology

Lioy, Paul J.

University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey

Environment/Ecology

Lippmann, Morton

New York University School of Medicine

Environment/Ecology

Liu, Jie

National Cancer Institute

Pharmacology

Liu, Yong-Jun

DNAX Research Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology

Immunology

Mazurek, Monica A.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Environment/Ecology

Morris, Peter John

Royal College of Surgeons

Clinical Medicine

Murphy, Dennis L.

National Institute of Mental Health

Psychology/Psychiatry

Murphy, Patricia A.

Iowa State University

Agricultural Sciences

Murray, David M.

University of Memphis

Social Sciences, General

Needham, Larry L.

National Center for Environmental Health

Environment/Ecology

Olmstead, Marilyn M.

University of California–Davis

Chemistry

Parker, John C.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Environment/Ecology

Peterson, Richard E.

University of Wisconsin–Madison

Pharmacology

Plattsmills, Thomas A.E.

University of Virginia Health System

Immunology

Rasmussen, Steven A.

Brown University

Psychology/Psychiatry

Richards, James H.

University of California–Davis

Environment/Ecology

Roberts, Robert

Baylor College of Medicine

Clinical Medicine

Ross, Judith

Thomas Jefferson University

Clinical Medicine

Roy, Alec

New Jersey Healthcare System

Psychology/Psychiatry

Safe, Stephen H.

Texas A&M University

Pharmacology
Environment/Ecology

Schroeder, Julian I.

University of California–San Diego

Plant & Animal Science

Schwartz, Joel D.

Harvard School of Public Health

Pharmacology
Environment/Ecology

Sharp, Frank R.

University of Cincinnati

Neuroscience

Shaw, George M.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine

Microbiology

Speizer, Frank E.

Harvard Medical School

Clinical Medicine

Spengler, John D.

Harvard University

Environment/Ecology

Stamler, Jeremiah

Northwestern University

Clinical Medicine

Stewart, Patricia

National Cancer Institute

Clinical Medicine

Thompson, Craig B.

University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center

Molecular Biology & Genetics
Immunology

Turco, Richard P.

University of California– Los Angeles

Geosciences

Van Thiel, David H.

Loyola University Medical Center

Clinical Medicine

Walker, Nigel

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

Chemistry

Wallace, Robert B.

University of Iowa

Social Sciences, General

Walter, Peter

University of California–San Francisco

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Wand, Matthew P.

University of South Wales

Mathematics

Wang, Xiadong

University of Texas Southwest Medical Center at Dallas

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Watson, John G.

Desert Research Institute

Environment/Ecology

Willett, Walter C.

Harvard School of Public Health

Clinical Medicine

Williams, Roger S.

Royal Free and University College Medical School

Clinical Medicine

John T. Wilson

U.S. EPA

Environment/Ecology

Winer, Arthur M.

University of California– Los Angeles

Environment/Ecology

Yang, Chung S.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Pharmacology

Yang, Wei T.

Duke University

Physics

Zeger, Scott L.

Johns Hopkins University

Mathematics

Zhang, Jinghui

National Cancer Institute

Biology & Biochemistry

Total = 81

   

Patents

There were no patents or patent applications associated with this research program.



[1] Thomson Scientific’s Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,830 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.
[2] Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality Web sources designed to support the literature research process. Scopus offers access to 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers, more than 12,850 academic journals (including coverage of 535 Open Access journals, 750 conference proceedings, and 600 trade publications), 27 million abstracts, 245 million references, 200 million scientific Web pages, and 13 million patent records.
[3] Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-210.
[4] MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.
[5] Kavaci N, Misak A. Author self-citation in medical literature. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(13):1929-1930.

Top of page

Jump to main content.