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Bibliometric Analysis for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research and Developments Land Research Program
April 8, 2008

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the Land Research Program. For this analysis, a total of 1,378 publications published from 1997 to 2007 were reviewed. The 1,378 journal publications were cited 20,253 times in the journals covered by Thomsons Web of Science1 and Scopus2. Of the 1,378 journal publications, 1,280 (93%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

Searches of Thomson Scientifics Web of Science and Scopus were conducted to obtain times cited data for the journal publications. The analysis was completed using Thomsons Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomsons databases. For this analysis, the ESI highly cited papers thresholds as well as the hot papers thresholds were used to assess the influence and impact of the Land publications. JCR is a recognized authority for evaluating journals. It presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the worlds leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community. The two key measures used in this analysis to assess the journals in which the EPA Land papers were published are the Impact Factor and Immediacy Index. The Impact Factor is a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journals relative importance, especially when compared to other journals in the same field. The Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. This index indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the same year and it is useful in comparing how quickly journals are cited.

The report includes a summary of the results of the bibliometric analysis, an assessment of the 1,378 Land journal articles analyzed by ESI field (e.g., Chemistry, Environment/Ecology), an analysis of the journals in which the Land papers were published, a table of the highly cited researchers in the Land Research Program, and information on the patents/patent applications that have resulted from the program.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

  1. More than one-sixth of the 1,378 Land journal publications are highly cited papers. 249 (18.1%) of the 1,378 Land journal publications qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. This is 1.8 times the number expected. 19 (1.4%) of the Land journal papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1%, which is 1.4 times the number expected. 2 (0.2%) of the Land publications qualify as very highly cited when using the criteria the ESI criteria for the top 0.1% of highly cited publications. No journal publications qualify as extremely highly cited when using the criteria for the top 0.01% threshold for the most highly cited papers.
  2. The Land journal publications are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 12 of the 16 fields in which the 1,378 Land journal papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the Land journal publications are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields. For all 16 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (20,253 to 14,215.4) is 1.4, indicating that the Land journal papers are more highly cited than the average paper.
  3. One-quarter of the Land journal papers are published in high impact journals. 362 of the 1,378 journal papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 26.3% of the Land journal publications. This number is 2.6 times higher than expected. 340 of the 1,378 papers appear in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Index, representing 24.7% of EPAs Land journal publications. This number is 2.5 times higher than expected.
  4. There were two hot papers among the 1,378 Land publications. Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 2 (0.2%) hot papers were identified in the analysis. Hot papers are papers that are highly cited shortly after they are published. This number is twice the number expected.
  5. The authors of the Land journal publications cite themselves much less than the average author. 966 of the 20,253 total cites are author self-cites. This 4.8% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.
  6. 41 of the 2,309 authors of the Land journal publications are included in ISIHighlyCited.com, which is a database of the worlds most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999.
  7. 4 patents were issued and 1 patent application was filed by investigators from 1997 to 2007 for research that was conducted under EPAs Land Research Program. The patents were cited by 5 other patents.

Highly Cited Land Publications

All of the journals covered by ESI are assigned a field, and to compensate for varying citation rates across scientific fields, different thresholds are applied to each field. Thresholds are set to select highly cited papers to be listed in ESI. Different thresholds are set for both field and year of publication. Setting different thresholds for each year allows comparable representation for older and younger papers for each field.

The 1,378 Land journal publications reviewed for this analysis were published in journals that were assigned to 16 of the 22 ESI fields. The distribution of the papers among these 16 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Land Journal Publications by ESI Fields

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of EPA Land Papers

Average Cites/Paper

Agricultural Sciences

54

7

7.7

Biology & Biochemistry

967

72

13.4

Chemistry

2,565

173

14.8

Clinical Medicine

41

8

5.1

Computer Science

20

5

4.0

Engineering

1,432

185

7.7

Environment/Ecology

11,308

703

16.1

Geosciences

437

53

8.2

Materials Science

247

14

17.6

Mathematics

1

1

1.0

Microbiology

1,654

55

30.1

Molecular Biology & Genetics

116

5

23.2

Multidisciplinary

25

1

25.0

Pharmacology & Toxicology

405

15

27.0

Physics

204

11

18.5

Plant & Animal Science

777

70

11.1

Total = 16

Total = 20,253

Total = 1,378

14.7

There are 249 (18.1% of the 1,378 journal papers analyzed) highly cited Land journal publications in 13 of the 16 fieldsBiology & Biochemistry, Chemistry, Clinical Medicine, Computer Science, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, Materials Science, Microbiology, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Multidisciplinary, Physics, and Plant & Animal Sciencewhen using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of Land journal publications in those 13 fields that meet the top 10% threshold in ESI.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Land Journal Publications by Field (top 10%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of Land Papers in Field

Biology & Biochemistry

145

3

48.3

4.2%

Chemistry

1,210

29

41.7

16.8%

Clinical Medicine

11

2

5.5

25.0%

Computer Science

10

1

10.1

20.0%

Engineering

811

43

18.9

23.2%

Environment/Ecology

5,650

125

45.2

17.8%

Geosciences

184

6

30.7

11.3%

Materials Science

209

5

41.8

35.7%

Microbiology

774

10

77.4

18.2%

Molecular Biology & Genetics

64

1

64.0

20.0%

Multidisciplinary

25

1

25.0

100.0%

Physics

123

4

30.8

36.4%

Plant & Animal Science

493

19

25.9

27.1%

Total = 9

Total = 9,709

Total = 249

39.0

18.1%

Nineteen (1.4%) of the journal publications analyzed qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These publications are in 7 of the 22 fieldsChemistry, Clinical Medicine, Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Geosciences, Materials Science, and Microbiology. Table 3 shows the 19 papers by field that meet the top 1% threshold in ESI. The citations for these 19 papers are provided in Tables 4 through 10. Two (0.2%) of the Land journal publications meet the top 0.1% ESI thresholds for highly cited papers, which is twice the number expected to meet this threshold. None of the Land journal publications actually meet the top 0.01% threshold in ESI, which is not surprising given that the expected number of publications to meet this threshold for this program is 0.1.

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Land Journal Publications by Field (top 1%)

ESI Field

No. of Citations

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of Land Papers in Field

Chemistry

379

3

126.3

1.7%

Clinical Medicine

3

1

3.0

12.5%

Engineering

179

4

44.8

2.2%

Environment/Ecology

600

6

100.0

0.8%

Geosciences

14

1

14.0

1.9%

Materials Science

180

2

90.0

14.3%

Microbiology

324

2

162.0

3.6%

Total = 2

Total = 1,679

Total = 19

88.4

1.4%

Table 4. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Chemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

148

Wang J

Sol-gel-derived thick-film amperometric immunosensors. Analytical Chemistry 1998;70(6):1171-1175.

130

Ravikovitch PI

Unified approach to pore size characterization of microporous carbonaceous materials from N-2, Ar, and CO2 adsorption isotherms. Langmuir 2000;16(5):2311-2320.

101

Ravikovitch PI

Characterization of micro- and mesoporosity in SBA-15 materials from adsorption data by the NLDFT method. Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2001;105(29):6817-6823.

Table 5. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Clinical Medicine (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

3

Levin M

Modulation of the respiratory burst by organochlorine mixtures in marine mammals, humans, and mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues 2007;70(1):73-83.

Table 6. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

67

Annable MD

Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: field-scale test results. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 1998;124(6):498-503.

54

Puls RW

Long-term performance monitoring for a permeable reactive barrier at the US Coast Guard Support Center, Elizabeth City, North Carolina. Journal of Hazardous Materials 1999;68(1-2):109-124.

49

Feeney R

Microfabricated ultramicroelectrode arrays: developments, advances, and applications in environmental analysis. Electroanalysis 2000;12(9):677-684.

9

He F

Stabilization of Fe-Pd nanoparticles with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose for enhanced transport and dechlorination of trichloroethylene in soil and groundwater. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007;46(1):29-34.

Table 7. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

120

Xia GS

Adsorption-partitioning uptake of nine low-polarity organic chemicals on a natural sorbent. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(2):262-269.

106

Su CM

Arsenate and arsenite removal by zerovalent iron: kinetics, redox transformation, and implications for in situ groundwater remediation. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(7):1487-1492.

73

Mazdai A

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maternal and fetal blood samples. Environmental Health Perspectives 2003;111(9):1249-1252.

240

Hites RA

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

29

Lien HL

High-level arsenite removal from groundwater by zero-valent iron. Chemosphere 2005;59(3):377-386.

32

Hoh E

Brominated flame retardants in the atmosphere of the east-central United States. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(20):7794-7802.

Table 8. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Geosciences (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

14

Lin CJ

Scientific uncertainties in atmospheric mercury models I: model science evaluation. Atmospheric Environment 2006;40(16):2911-2928.

Table 9. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Materials Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

81

Neimark AV

Capillary condensation in MMS and pore structure characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2001;44:697-707.

99

Zhang WX

Nanoscale iron particles for environmental remediation: an overview. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 2003;5(3-4):323-332.

Table 10. Highly Cited Land Journal Publications in the Field of Microbiology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

189

Macnaughton SJ

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1999;65(8):3566-3574.

135

Gelvin SB

Agobacterium-mediated plant transformation: the biology behind the gene-Jockeying tool. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 2003;67(1):16+.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 12 of the 16 fields in which the EPA Land journal papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the Land journal publications are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 11). For all 16 fields combined, the ratio of total number of cites to the total number of expected cites (20,253 to 14,215.4) is 1.4, indicating that the Land journal publications are more highly cited than the average paper.

Table 11. Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Cites for Land Journal Publications by Field

ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Agricultural Sciences

54

45.9

1.2

Biology & Biochemistry

967

1,178.4

0.8

Chemistry

2,565

1,872.0

1.4

Clinical Medicine

41

35.4

1.2

Computer Science

20

17.9

1.1

Engineering

1,432

795.2

1.8

Environment/Ecology

11.308

7,833.0

1.4

Geosciences

437

445.8

1.0

Materials Science

247

56.5

4.4

Mathematics

1

5.2

0.2

Microbiology

1,654

1,022.0

1.5

Molecular Biology & Genetics

116

128.7

0.9

Multidisciplinary

25

6.4

3.9

Pharmacology & Toxicology

405

178.3

2.3

Physics

204

97.7

2.1

Plant & Animal Science

777

497.0

1.6

TOTAL

20,253

14,215.4

1.4

JCR Benchmarks

Impact Factor. The JCR Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journals relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 12 indicates the number of Land journal publications published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Three hundred sixty-two (362) of 1,378 journal papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 26.3% of EPAs Land journal publications. This indicates that more than one-quarter of the Land journal publications are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Impact Factor, which is 2.6 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 12. Land Journal Publications in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

EPA Land Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor(IF)

JCR IF Rank

1

Science

30.028

9

1

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

22.808

26

1

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

15.864

40

1

Chemical Society Reviews

13.690

61

1

FEMS Microbiology Reviews

8.691

140

1

Trends in Microbiology

8.335

146

3

Trends in Biotechnology

7.843

163

2

Journal of the American Chemical Society

7.696

168

1

Current Opinion in Biotechnology

6.949

193

1

Plant Journal

6.565

213

1

Nucleic Acids Research

6.317

222

3

Plant Physiology

6.125

232

5

Environmental Health Perspectives

5.861

255

1

Journal of Biological Chemistry

5.808

260

1

Structure

5.738

267

17

Analytical Chemistry

5.646

276

1

Chemistry of Materials

5.104

330

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

5.068

337

1

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

4.722

397

1

Environmental Microbiology

4.630

406

1

Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences

4.500

427

1

Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

4.491

431

1

Progress in Energy and Combustion Science

4.333

456

1

Journal of Materials Chemistry

4.287

464

2

Genetics

4.242

475

2

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

4.132

496

3

Journal of Physical Chemistry B

4.115

501

8

Electrophoresis

4.101

506

1

Biochemical Journal

4.100

507

199

Environmental Science & Technology

4.040

518

6

Journal of Bacteriology

3.993

533

9

Applied Catalysis B-Environmental

3.942

548

1

Inorganic Chemistry

3.911

557

10

Langmuir

3.902

558

1

Advances in Colloid and Interface Science

3.790

591

4

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

3.751

609

2

Biomacromolecules

3.664

642

3

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

3.638

646

1

Biochemistry

3.633

648

3

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.630

650

6

Toxicological Sciences

3.598

662

1

Journal of Chromatography A

3.554

678

32

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.532

682

1

Electrochemistry Communications

3.484

699

2

Ecological Applications

3.470

708

4

Journal of Membrane Science

3.442

717

1

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

3.307

767

1

Limnology and Oceanography

3.287

774

3

Analyst

3.198

804

2

Journal of Chemical Physics

3.166

814

1

Chemical Research in Toxicology

3.162

818

3

FEMS Microbiology Ecology

3.157

822

1

Journal of Physical Chemistry A

3.047

863

Total = 362

 

 

Immediacy Index. The JCR Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 13 indicates the number of Land journal publications published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Three hundred forty (340) of the 1,378 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 24.7% of the Land journal papers. This indicates that nearly one-fourth of the Land journal papers are published in the highest quality journals as determined by the JCR Immediacy Index, which is 2.5 times higher than the expected percentage.

Table 13. Land Journal Publications in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

EPA Land Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index(II)

JCR II Rank

1

Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology

7.059

 

1

Science

5.555

 

1

Chemical Society Reviews

2.586

 

1

Nucleic Acids Research

1.744

 

1

Journal of the North American Benthological Society

1.568

 

2

Journal of the American Chemical Society

1.510

 

1

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

1.472

 

1

Structure

1.323

 

1

Plant Journal

1.222

 

1

Antioxidants and Redox Signaling

1.131

 

1

Journal of Biological Chemistry

1.110

 

3

Trends in Biotechnology

1.025

 

5

Environmental Health Perspectives

0.994

 

1

FEMS Microbiology Reviews

0.976

 

1

Trends in Microbiology

0.959

 

3

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

0.940

 

3

Analyst

0.925

 

2

Genetics

0.919

 

3

Plant Physiology

0.900

 

6

Journal of Bacteriology

0.894

 

1

Journal of Materials Chemistry

0.882

 

1

Environmental Microbiology

0.850

 

1

Earth Planets and Space

0.848

 

1

Biochemical Journal

0.847

 

17

Analytical Chemistry

0.795

 

1

Limnology and Oceanography

0.784

 

3

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.768

 

2

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

0.756

 

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

0.752

 

1

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

0.746

 

6

Toxicological Sciences

0.734

 

1

Journal of Physical Chemistry A

0.730

 

1

Biochemistry

0.726

 

2

Journal of Chemical Physics

0.721

 

1

Journal of Experimental Biology

0.719

 

2

Ecological Engineering

0.716

 

1

Inorganic Chemistry

0.699

 

1

Chemistry of Materials

0.692

 

3

Journal of Geophysical Research

0.684

 

1

Chemical Research in Toxicology

0.663

 

4

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

0.658

 

199

Environmental Science & Technology

0.646

 

3

Journal of Physical Chemistry B

0.637

 

32

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

0.634

 

10

Langmuir

0.623

 

1

Tetrahedron Letters

0.597

 

1

Pure and Applied Chemistry

0.586

 

1

Environmental Research

0.583

 

2

Biomacromolecules

0.566

 

Total = 340

 

 

 

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorterpapers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers.

Using the hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 2 hot papers, representing 0.2% of the Land papers, were identified in two fieldsEnvironment/Ecology and Materials Science. The number of Land hot papers is 2 times higher than expected. The hot papers are listed in Table 14.

Table 14. Hot Papers Identified Using ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Environment/ Ecology

8

9 cites in January-February 2005

Hites RA. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: a meta-analysis of concentrations. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(4):945-956.

Materials Science

3

4 cites in July-August 2001

Neimark AV, Ravikovitch PI. Capillary condensation in MMS and pore structure characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2001;44:697-707.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the Land papers. Of the 20,253 total cites of the 1,378 journal publications, 966 are author self-citesa 4.8% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher3 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts4 claim that approximately 10-30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Kovacic and Misak5 reported a 20% author self-citation rate for medical literature. Therefore, the 4.8% self-cite rate for the Land papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

Highly Cited Researchers

A search of Thomsons ISIHighlyCited.com revealed that 41 (1.8%) of the 2,309 authors of the Land papers are highly cited researchers. ISIHighlyCited.com is a database of the worlds most influential researchers who have made key contributions to science and technology during the period from 1981 to 1999. The highly cited researchers identified during this analysis of the Land publications are presented in Table 15.

Table 15. Highly Cited Researchers Authoring Land Journal Publications

Highly Cited Researcher

Affiliation

ESI Field

Abriola, Linda M.

University of Michigan

Environment/Ecology

Alexander, Martin

Cornell University

Environmental Ecology
Microbiology

Allen, Herbert E.

University of Delaware

Environment/Ecology

Ankley, Gerald

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Environment/Ecology

Arey, Janet

University of California-Riverside

Environment/Ecology

Brusseau, Mark L.

University of Arizona

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Curl, Robert F.

Rice University

Chemistry

Dillon, Peter J.

Trent University

Environment/Ecology

Drew, Malcolm C.

Texas A&M University

Plant & Animal Science

Giesy, John P.

Michigan State University

Environment/Ecology

Gillham, Robert W.

University of Waterloo

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Gray Jr., Leon Earl

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Pharmacology

Gschwend, Philip Michael

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Hammock, Bruce D.

University of California-Davis

Agricultural Sciences

Hansen, Dave J.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (formerly)

Environment/Ecology

Hildemann, Lynn M.

Stanford University

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Hites, Ronald A.

Indiana University

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

Inouye, Sumiko

University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey

Microbiology

Jones, Ronald Norman

JONES Group/JMI Laboratories

Microbiology

Jury, William A.

University of California-Riverside

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

Kitanidis, Peter K.

Stanford University

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

Landrum, Peter F.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

Environment/Ecology

Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

University of North Carolina

Agricultural Sciences

Lindberg, Steven E.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Environment/Ecology

Luthy, Richard G.

Stanford University

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

McCarty, Perry L.

Stanford University

Engineering
Environmental/Ecology

McClements, David Julian

University of Massachusetts

Agricultural Sciences

Mller, Rolf

Philipps University, Germany

Microbiology

Navrotsky, Alexandra

University of California-Davis

Geosciences

Pignatello, Joseph J.

Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

Environment/Ecology
Engineering

Rao, P. Suresh Chandra

Purdue University

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

Reeves, Philip G.

U.S. Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Sciences

Roberts, Paul V.

Stanford University

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

Ryals, John A.

Paradigm Genetics, Inc.

Plant & Animal Science

Schindler, David W.

University of Alberta

Environment/Ecology

Seib, Paul A.

Kansas State University

Agricultural Sciences

Sparks, Donald Lewis

University of Delaware

Environment/Ecology

Suidan, Makram T.

University of Cincinnati

Environment/Ecology

Tiedje, James M.

Michigan State University

Microbiology Environment/Ecology

Weber, Walter J.

University of Michigan

Engineering
Environment/Ecology

White, David C.

University of Tennessee

Microbiology

Total = 41

 

 

Patents

There were four patents issued to and one patent application filed by investigators from 1997 to 2007 for research that was conducted under EPAs Land Research Program. The patents were cited by five other patents (see Table 16).

Table 16. Patents from the Land Research Program (1997-2007)

Patent/Patent Application No.

Inventor(s)

Title

Patent Date

Patents that Referenced This Patent

U.S. Patent No. 6,248,218

Linkous CA
Muradov NZ

Closed cycle photocatalytic process for decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to its constituent elements.

June 19, 2001

Referenced by 2 patents:
(1) 7,220,391 UV photochemical option for closed cycle decomposition of hydrogen sulfide
(2) 6,964,755 Method for producing high activity photocatalyst, photoactivity catalyst, and method for treating hydrogen sulfide for recovering hydrogen gas under low energy by using high activity photocatalyst

U.S. Patent No. 6,455,759

Vierstra RD
Walker JM
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation assignee

Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants.

September 24, 2002

Referenced by 2 patents:
(1) 7,230,080 Fluorescent and colored proteins, and polynucleotides that encode these proteins
(2) 7,160,698 Fluorescent and colored proteins, and polynucleotides that encode these proteins

U.S. Patent No. 6,572,829

Linkous CA, Muradov NZ
University of Central Florida assignee

Closed cycle photocatalytic process for decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to its constituent elements.

June 3, 2003

Referenced by 1 patent:
(1) 6,964,755 Method for producing high activity photocatalyst, photoactivity catalyst, and method for treating hydrogen sulfide for recovering hydrogen gas under low energy by using high activity photocatalyst

U.S. Patent No. 7,220,391

Huang CP, Linkous CA
University of Central Florida assignee

UV photochemical option for closed cycle decomposition of hydrogen sulfide

May 22, 2007

Referenced by 0 patents

U.S. Patent Application No. 200060021928

Diallo MS
California Institute of Technology assignee

Water treatment by dendrimer enhanced filtration

February 2, 2006

Not applicable

1 Thomson Scientifics Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,830 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Scopus is a large abstract and citation database of research literature and quality Web sources designed to support the literature research process. Scopus offers access to 15,000 titles from 4,000 different publishers, more than 12,850 academic journals (including coverage of 535 Open Access journals, 750 conference proceedings, and 600 trade publications), 27 million abstracts, 245 million references, 200 million scientific Web pages, and 13 million patent records.

3 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-210.

4 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

5 Kovacic N, Misak A. Author self-citation in medical literature. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(13):1929-1930.

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