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Bibliometric Analysis for Papers on Topics Related to Land/Remediation Research
January 5, 2006

This is a bibliometric analysis of the papers prepared by intramural and extramural researchers of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on topics related to land/remediation research. For this analysis, 1,141 papers were reviewed. These 1,141 papers, published from 1995 to 2005, were cited 14,477 times in the journals covered by Thomson’s Web of Science.1 Of these 1,141 papers, 1,030 (90.3%) have been cited at least once in a journal.

The analysis was completed using Thomson's Essential Science Indicators (ESI) and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) as benchmarks. ESI provides access to a unique and comprehensive compilation of essential science performance statistics and science trends data derived from Thomson’s databases. The chief indicators of output, or productivity, are journal article publication counts. For influence and impact measures, ESI employs both total citation counts and cites per paper scores. The former reveals gross influence while the latter shows weighted influence, also called impact. JCR presents quantifiable statistical data that provide a systematic, objective way to evaluate the world’s leading journals and their impact and influence in the global research community.

Summary of Analysis

More than one-quarter of the land/remediation publications are highly cited papers. A review of the citations indicates that 289 (25.3%) of the land/remediation papers qualify as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of highly cited publications. Forty-four (3.9%) of the land/remediation papers qualify as highly cited when using the criteria for the top 1%. Three (0.3%) of these papers qualify as very highly cited (in the top 0.1%). None of the papers meet the highest threshold (the top 0.01%) for highly cited papers.

The land/remediation papers are more highly cited than the average paper. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 11 of the 14 fields in which the EPA land/remediation papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the land/remediation papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields.

Nearly one-quarter of the land/remediation papers are published in very high impact journals. Two hundred seventy-six (276) of 1,141 papers were published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Impact Factor, representing 24.2% of EPA’s land/remediation papers. More than one-fifth of the land/remediation papers are published in the top 10% of journals ranked by JCR Immediacy Factor. Two-hundred forty-three (243) of the 1,141 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 21.3% of EPA's land/remediation papers.

Twenty of the land/remediation publications qualified as hot papers. ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Using the current hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 20 of the land/remediation papers, representing 1.8% of the land/remediation publications, were identified as hot papers in the analysis.

The authors of the land/remediation papers cite themselves less than the average self-citation rate. Seven hundred sixty-seven(767) of the 14,477 cites are author self-cites. This 5.3% author self-citation rate is well below the accepted range of 10-30% author self-citation rate.

Highly Cited Land/Remediation Publications

The 1,141 land/remediation papers reviewed for this analysis covered 14 of the 22 ESI fields of research. The distribution of the papers among these 14 fields and the number of citations by field are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Land/Remediation Papers by ESI Fields

No. of Citations

ESI Field

No. of EPA Ecosystem Papers

Average Cites/Paper

5,428

Environment/Ecology

495

10.96

4,571

Engineering

334

13.68

1,678

Chemistry

129

13.01

1,491

Microbiology

69

21.61

413

Pharmacology & Toxicology

28

14.75

407

Geosciences

47

8.66

153

Physics

11

13.91

115

Biology & Biochemistry

10

11.50

107

Agricultural Sciences

8

13.38

58

Plant & Animal Science

5

11.60

48

Materials Science

2

24.00

6

Multidisciplinary

1

6.00

1

Clinical Medicine

1

1.00

1

Mathematics

1

1.00

Total =

14,477

 

Total =

1,141

12.69

There were 289 (25.3% of the papers analyzed) highly cited EPA land/remediation papers in 11 of the 14 fields—Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Chemistry, Microbiology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Geosciences, Physics, Agricultural Sciences, Materials Science, Plant & Animal Science, and Multidisciplinary—when using the ESI criteria for the top 10% of papers. Table 2 shows the number of EPA papers in those 11 fields that met the top 10% threshold in ESI.

Forty-four (3.9%) of the papers analyzed qualified as highly cited when using the ESI criteria for the top 1% of papers. These papers were categorized in five fields—Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Microbiology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Materials Science. Table 3 shows the 44 papers by field that met the top 1% threshold in ESI. There were three (0.3% of the papers analyzed) very highly cited EPA land/remediation papers in two fields—Engineering and Pharmacology & Toxicology. These three papers met the top 0.1% threshold in ESI. None of the land/remediation papers met the highest threshold for highly cited papers (i.e., the top 0.01% threshold) in ESI.

Table 2. Number of Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers by Field (top 10%)

No. of Citations

ESI Field

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

3,967

Engineering

173

22.93

51.80%

2,387

Environment/Ecology

66

36.17

13.33%

776

Chemistry

17

45.65

13.18%

554

Microbiology

8

69.25

11.59%

242

Pharmacology & Toxicology

7

34.57

25.00%

164

Geosciences

7

23.43

14.89%

127

Physics

4

31.75

36.36%

82

Agricultural Sciences

3

27.33

37.50%

47

Materials Science

1

47.00

50.00%

26

Plant & Animal Science

2

13.00

40.00%

6

Multidisciplinary

1

6.00

100.00%

Total =

8,378

 

Total =

289

28.99

 

Table 3. Number of Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers by Field (top 1%)

No. of Citations

ESI Field

No. of Papers

Average Cites/Paper

% of EPA Papers in Field

1,707

Engineering

37

46.14

11.08%

234

Environment/Ecology

2

117.00

0.40%

202

Chemistry

2

83.00

3.57%

119

Microbiology

1

119.00

1.45%

83

Pharmacology & Toxicology

1

83.00

3.57%

47

Materials Science

1

47.00

50.00%

Total =

2,392

 

Total =

44

 

54.36

 

The citations for the highly cited papers in the top 1% are presented in Tables 4 through 9. The citations for the very highly cited papers are listed in Table 10.

Table 4. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Engineering (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

59

Hopkins GD

Field evaluation of in-situ aerobic cometabolism of trichloroethylene and 3-dichloroethylene isomers using phenol and toluene as the primary substrates. Environmental Science & Technology 1995;29(6):1628-1637.

53

Helland BR

Reductive dechlorination of carbon-tetrachloride with elemental iron. Journal of Hazardous Materials 1995;41(2-3):205-216.

51

Chiu PC

Metallocoenzyme-mediated reductive transformation of carbon-tetrachloride in titanium (III) citrate aqueous solution. Environmental Science & Technology 1995;29(3):595-603.

50

Ankley GT

Effects of light-intensity on the phototoxicity of fluoranthene to a benthic macroinvertebrate. Environmental Science & Technology 1995;29(11):2828-2833.

103

Pennell KD

Influence of viscous and buoyancy forces on the mobilization of residual tetrachloroethylene during surfactant flushing. Environmental Science & Technology 1996;30(4):1328-1335.

57

Siantar DP

Treatment of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and nitrate-contaminated water with zero-valent iron or hydrogen/palladium catalysts. Water Research 1996;30(10):2315-2322.

80

Hughes JB

Transformation of TNT by aquatic plants and plant tissue cultures. Environmental Science & Technology 1997;31(1):266-271.

57

Reinhard M

In situ BTEX biotransformation under enhanced nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 1997;31(1):28-36.

49

Burken JG

Uptake and metabolism of atrazine by poplar trees. Environmental Science & Technology 1997;31(5):1399-1406.

47

Pennell KD

Solubilization of dodecane, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene in micellar solutions of ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. Environmental Science & Technology 1997;31(5):1382-1389.

74

Yang YR

Competition for hydrogen within a chlorinated solvent dehalogenating anaerobic mixed culture. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(22):3591-3597.

71

Kan AT

Irreversible sorption of neutral hydrocarbons to sediments: experimental observations and model predictions. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(7):892-902.

69

Davis JA

Application of the surface complexation concept to complex mineral assemblages. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(19):2820-2828.

66

Burken JG

Predictive relationships for uptake of organic contaminants by hybrid poplar trees. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(1):3379-3385.

52

McCarty PL

Full scale evaluation of in situ cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater through toluene injection. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;21(1):88-100.

51

Annable MD

Partitioning tracers for measuring residual NAPL: field-scale test results. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 1998;124(6):498-503.

50

Jawitz JW

Field implementation of a Winsor type I surfactant/alcohol mixture for in situ solubilization of a complex LNAPL as a single phase microemulsion. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(4):523-530.

46

Till BA

Fe(0)-supported autotrophic dentrification. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(5):634-639.

43

Butler EC

Effects of solution composition on pH on the reductive dechlorination of hexachloroethane by iron sulfide. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(9):1276-1284.

43

Herdan J

Field evaluation of an electrochemical probe for in situ screening of heavy metals in groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(1):131-136.

88

Xia GS

Adsorption-partitioning uptake of nine low-polarity organic chemicals on a natural sorbent. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(2):262-269.

54

Su CM

Kinetics of trichloroethene reduction by zerovalent iron and tin: pretreatment effect, apparent activation energy, and intermediate products. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(1):163-168.

37

Bhadra R

Confirmation of conjugation processes during TNT metabolism by axenic plant roots. Environmental Science & Technology 1999;33(3):446-452.

41

Ford RG

The nature of Zn precipitates formed in the presence of pyrophyllite. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(12):2479-2483.

40

Burkhard LP

Estimating dissolved organic carbon partition coefficients for nonionic organic chemicals. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(22):4663-4668.

56

Su CM

Arsenate and arsenite removal by zerovalent iron: kinetics, redox transformation, and implications for in situ groundwater remediation. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(7):1487-1492.

37

Williams AGB

Kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by carbonate green rust. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(17):3488-3494.

27

Ryan JA

Formation of chloropyromorphite in a lead-contaminated soil amended with hydroxyapatite. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(18):3798-3803.

27

McCormick ML

Carbon tetrachloride transformation in a model iron-reducing culture: relative kinetics of biotic and abiotic reactions. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(3):403-410.

25

Rockne KJ

Distributed sequestration and release of PAHs in weathered sediment: the role of sediment structure and organic carbon properties. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2636-2644.

24

Kneebone PE

Deposition and fate of arsenic in iron- and arsenic-enriched reservoir sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(3):381-386.

21

Lu YF

Demonstration of the “conditioning effect” in soil organic matter in support of a pore deformation mechanism for sorption hysteresis. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(21):4553-4561.

27

Braida WJ

Sorption hysteresis of benzene in charcoal particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2003;37(2):409-417.

10

Nguyen TH

Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(3):3595-3603.

10

Williams AGB

Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at the iron oxide-water interface. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(18):4782-4790.

7

Ryan JA

Reducing children’s risk from lead in soil. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):18A-24A.

5

Kuder T

Enrichment of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes during anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE: microcosm and field evidence. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(1):213-220.

Table 5. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of
Environment/Ecology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

125

Ankley GT

Technical basis and proposal for deriving sediment quality criteria for metals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1995;15(12):2056-2066.

109

Haggerty R

Multiple-rate mass-transfer for modeling diffusion and surface-reactions in media with pore-scale heterogeneity. Water Resources Research 1995;31(10):2383-2400.

Table 6. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Chemistry (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

113

Wang J

Sol-gel-derived thick-film amperometric immunosensors. Analytical Chemistry 1998;70(6):1171-1175.

89

Ravikovitch PI

Unified approach to pore size characterization of microporous carbonaceous materials from N-2, Ar, and CO 2 adsorption isotherms. Langmuir 2000;16(5):2311-2320.

Table 7. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of
Microbiology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

119

Macnaughton SJ

Microbial population changes during bioremediation of an experimental oil spill. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1999;65(8):3566-3574.

Table 8. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of
Pharmacology & Toxicology (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

83

Ding XX

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Table 9. Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers in the Field of Materials Science (top 1%)

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

47

Neimark AV

Capillary condensation in MMS and pore structure characterization. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2001;44:697-707.

Table 10. Very Highly Cited Land/Remediation Papers (Top 0.1%)

Field

No. of Cites

First Author

Paper

Engineering

27

Braida WJ

Sorption hysteresis of benzene in charcoal particles. Environmental Science & Technology 2003;37(2):409-417.

 

5

Kuder T

Enrichment of stable carbon and hydrogen isotopes during anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE: microcosm and field evidence. Environmental Science & Technology 2005;39(1):213-220.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

83

Ding XX

Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology & Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Ratio of Actual Cites to Expected Citation Rates

The expected citation rate is the average number of cites that a paper published in the same journal in the same year and of the same document type (article, review, editorial, etc.) has received from the year of publication to the present. Using the ESI average citation rates for papers published by field as the benchmark, in 11 of the 14 fields in which the EPA land/remediation papers were published, the ratio of actual to expected cites is greater than 1, indicating that the EPA papers are more highly cited than the average papers in those fields (see Table 11).

Table 11. Ratio of Average Cites to Expected Cites for
Land/Remediation Papers by Field

ESI Field

Total Cites

Expected Cite Rate

Ratio

Environment/Ecology

5,428

4,264.93

1.27

Engineering

4,571

1,115.34

4.10

Chemistry

1,678

1,261.94

1.33

Microbiology

1,491

1,183.65

1.26

Pharmacology & Toxicology

413

293.85

1.40

Geosciences

407

399.33

1.02

Physics

153

82.22

1.86

Biology & Biochemistry

115

123.21

0.93

Agricultural Sciences

107

42.32

2.53

Plant & Animal Science

58

30.35

1.91

Materials Science

48

11.84

4.05

Multidisciplinary

6

2.28

2.63

Clinical Medicine

1

1.70

0.59

Mathematics

1

3.77

0.26

JCR Benchmarks

The Impact Factor is a well known metric in citation analysis. It is a measure of the frequency with which the average article in a journal has been cited in a particular year. The Impact Factor helps evaluate a journal’s relative importance, especially when compared to others in the same field. The Impact Factor is calculated by dividing the number of citations in the current year to articles published in the 2 previous years by the total number of articles published in the 2 previous years.

Table 12 indicates the number of land/remediation papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Impact Factor. Two hundred seventy-six (276) of 1,141 papers were published in the top 10% of journals, representing 24.2% of EPA’s land/remediation papers.

Table 12. Land/Remediation Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Impact Factor

EPA Land/Remediation Papers in that Journal

Journal

Impact Factor (IF)

JCR IF Rank

180

Environmental Science & Technology

3.557

540

23

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

3.810

470

12

Environmental Health Perspectives

3.929

439

11

Analytical Chemistry

5.450

243

8

Journal of Bacteriology

4.146

385

6

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

3.836

461

5

Electrophoresis

3.743

482

4

Langmuir

3.295

622

3

Applied Catalysis B-Environmental

4.042

411

3

Toxicological Sciences

3.391

591

2

Journal of Chromatography A

3.359

602

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

3.811

468

2

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

3.760

479

2

Biosensors & Bioelectronics

3.251

636

1

Current Opinion in Biotechnology

8.080

129

1

Siam Review

6.118

203

1

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

4.335

356

1

Ecology

4.104

394

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

3.926

440

1

Pediatrics

3.903

447

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

3.888

452

1

Biochemical Pharmacology

3.436

581

1

Ecological Applications

3.287

623

1

Advances in Agronomy

3.212

652

1

Chemical Geology

3.174

670

1

Journal of Mass Spectrometry

3.056

722

1

Limnology and Oceanography

3.024

737

Total = 276

 

Immediacy Index

The journal Immediacy Index is a measure of how quickly the average article in a journal is cited. It indicates how often articles published in a journal are cited within the year they are published. The Immediacy Index is calculated by dividing the number of citations to articles published in a given year by the number of articles published in that year.

Table 13 indicates the number of EPA papers published in the top 10% of journals, based on the JCR Immediacy Index. Two hundred forty-three (243) of the 1,141 papers appear in the top 10% of journals, representing 21.3% of EPA’s land/remediation papers.

Table 13. Land/Remediation Papers in Top 10% of Journals by JCR Immediacy Index

EPA Land/Remediation Papers in that Journal

Journal

Immediacy Index (II)

JCR II Rank

180

Environmental Science & Technology

0.623

617

12

Environmental Health Perspectives

1.202

202

11

Analytical Chemistry

0.885

346

8

Journal of Bacteriology

0.827

383

6

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

0.590

676

5

Electrophoresis

0.575

697

4

Langmuir

0.566

717

2

Tetrahedron Letters

0.583

681

2

Hydrobiologia

0.681

532

2

Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta

0.680

535

2

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

0.575

697

1

Ecotoxicology

1.450

151

1

Pediatrics

0.935

311

1

TRAC-Trends in Analytical Chemistry

0.583

681

1

Ecology

0.590

676

1

Current Opinion in Biotechnology

0.919

322

1

Marine Geology

0.842

373

1

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

0.797

419

1

Ecological Applications

0.747

466

1

Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry

0.641

588

Total = 243

 

Hot Papers

ESI establishes citation thresholds for hot papers, which are selected from the highly cited papers in different fields, but the time frame for citing and cited papers is much shorter—papers must be cited within 2 years of publication and the citations must occur in a 2-month time period. Papers are assigned to 2-month periods and thresholds are set for each period and field to select 0.1% of papers. There were no hot papers identified for the current 2-month period (i.e., September-October 2005), but there was one hot paper identified from previous periods.

Using the current hot paper thresholds established by ESI as a benchmark, 20 hot papers, representing 1.8% of the land/remediation papers, were identified in the fields of Engineering, Environment/Ecology, Pharmacology & Toxicology, and Microbiology. The hot papers are listed in Table 14.

Table 14. Hot Papers Identified Using Current ESI Thresholds

Field

ESI Hot Papers Threshold

No. of Cites in 2-Month Period

Paper

Engineering

5

6 cites in February-March 2003

Williams AGB, Scherer MM. Kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by carbonate green rust. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(17):3488-3494.

 

5

6 cites in August-September 1999

McCarty PL, et al. Full scale evaluation of in situ cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene in groundwater through toluene injection. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(1):88-100.

 

5

5 cites in November-December 2001

Ford RG, Sparks DL. The nature of Zn precipitates formed in the presence of pyrophyllite. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(12):2479-2483.

 

5

5 cites in July-August 1999

Herdan J, et al. Field evaluation of an electrochemical probe for in situ screening of heavy metals in groundwater. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(1):131-136.

 

4

5 cites in September- October 2005

Nguyen TH, et al. Sorption nonlinearity for organic contaminants with diesel soot: method development and isotherm interpretation. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(13):3595-3603.

 

4

5 cites in January-February 2005

Ryan JA, et al. Reducing children’s risk from lead in soil. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(1):18A-24A.

 

4

5 cites in August-September 2005

Williams AGB, Scherer MM. Spectroscopic evidence for Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer at the iron oxide-water interface. Environmental Science & Technology 2004;38(18):4782-4790.

 

4

5 cties in August-September 2002

Pruden A, et al. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether under various substrate conditions. Environmental Science & Technology 2001;35(21):4235-4241.

Engineering

4

5 cites in December 1999-January 2000

Davis JA, et al. Application of the surface complexation concept to complex mineral assemblages. Environmental Science & Technology 1998;32(19):2820-2828.

 

4

5 cites in May-June 1997

Schnoor JL, et al. Phytoremediation of organic and nutrient contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology 1995;29(7):A318-A323.

 

4

4 cites in April-May 2003

Rockne KJ, et al. Distributed sequestration and release of PAHs in weathered sediment: the role of sediment structure and organic carbon. Environmental Science & Technology 2002;36(12):2636-2644.

 

4

4 cites in February-March 2002

Reddy CM, et al. Stable chlorine isotopic compositions of aroclors and aroclor-contaminated sediments. Environmental Science & Technology 2000;34(13):2866-2870.

 

4

4 cites in June-July 1998

Hurst CJ, et al. Soil gas oxygen tension and pentachlorophenol biodegradation. Journal of Environmental Engineering-ASCE 1997;123(4):364-370.

 

3

3 cites in June-July 1997

Anderson JE, McCarty PL. Effect of three chlorinated ethenes on growth rates for a methanotrophic mixed culture. Environmental Science & Technology 1996;30(12):3517-3524.

Environment/ Ecology

8

13 cites in November-December 1996

Berry WJ, et al. Predicting the toxicity of metal-spiked laboratory sediments using acid-volatile sulfide and interstitial water normalizations. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2067-2079.

 

8

11 cites in December 1996

Hansen DJ, et al. Chronic effect of cadmium in sediments on colonization by benthic marine organisms: an evaluation of the role of interstitial cadmium and acid-volatile sulfide in biological availability. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2126-2137.

Environment/ Ecology

8

10 cites in December 1996

Hansen DJ, et al. Predicting the toxicity of metal-contaminated field sediments using interstitial concentration of metals and acid-volatile sulfide. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2080-2094.

 

8

9 cites in December 1996

Liber K, et al. Effects of acid-volatile sulfide on zinc bioavailability and toxicity to benthic macroinvertebrates: a spiked-sediment field experiment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996;15(12):2113-2125.

Pharmacology & Toxicology

5

9 cites in September-October 2004

Ding XX, Kaminsky LS. Human extrahepatic cytochromes P450: function in xenobiotic metabolism and tissue-selective chemical toxicity in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2003;43:149-173.

Microbiology

3

3 cites in May-June 1995

Ely RL, et al. A cometabolic kinetics model incorporating enzyme-inhibition, inactivation, and recovery. 2. Trichloroethylene degradation experiments. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 1995;46(3):232-245.

Author Self-Citation

Self-citations are journal article references to articles from that same author (i.e., the first author). Because higher author self-citation rates can inflate the number of citations, the author self-citation rate was calculated for the land/remediation papers. Of the 14,477 total cites, 767 are author self-cites—a 5.3% author self-citation rate. Garfield and Sher2 found that authors working in research-based disciplines tend to cite themselves on the average of 20% of the time. MacRoberts and MacRoberts3 claim that approximately 10% to 30% of all the citations listed fall into the category of author self-citation. Therefore, the 5.3% self-cite rate for the land/remediation papers is well below the range for author self-citation.

1 Thomson's Web of Science provides access to current and retrospective multidisciplinary information from approximately 8,500 of the most prestigious, high impact research journals in the world. Web of Science also provides cited reference searching.

2 Garfield E, Sher IH. New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing. American Documentation 1963;18(July):195-201.

3 MacRoberts MH, MacRoberts BR. Problems of citation analysis: a critical review. Journal of the American Society of Information Science 1989;40(5):342-349.

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