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Technical Summaries

2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006


2012
anthrax spores, 37,207 magnification
Biothreat Agents in Drinking Water Systems – The effectiveness of chlorination and chloramination in the inactivation of waterborne anthrax under typical ambient conditions. Read more
Waste and debris disposal tools created for many possible scenarios
Version 6.1 of EPA's Incident Waste Assessment & Tonnage Estimator (I-WASTE) includes a wide-area waste quantity estimator, which allows users to calculate disposal waste amounts for events involving several structures. Read more
DNA Strands
Rapid Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live Bacillus anthracis Spores – During the cleanup of an anthrax release, the ability to quickly determine whether residual anthrax spores are viable is a key analytical requirement. The Rapid Viability PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method provides this analytical ability. Read more
2011
Decontamination workers checking barrels
Workshops on Decontamination Research and Development – EPA has conducted workshops since 2005 on decontamination associated issues for sites contaminated with chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) materials. EPA organizes the workshops to provide a forum for researchers and stakeholders to exchange information and collaborate on decontamination R&D. Read more
EPA H20 infrastructure
EPA’s Water Security Modeling and Simulation Research – EPA has developed a number of tools that can be used by water utilities to improve the security of drinking water and water distribution infrastructure. Read more
BIOQUELL Clarus C HP Vapor Generator
Evaluation of Fumigant Technologies for Surfaces Contaminated With Bacillus anthracis Spores – The potential biological warfare agent anthrax forms spores that are highly resistant to exposure to harsh chemicals and physical stresses such as high temperature. EPA has conducted tests to collect performance data on several fumigant technologies that could be used to treat surfaces in a contaminated facility. Read more
Graph of Brucella suis persistence on aluminum
Results from Persistence Testing of Biological Agents Under Various Conditions – Environmental conditions that might decrease the number of viable organisms could be implemented prior to decontamination efforts. This could potentially reduce the risks of exposure, lower the costs of cleanup, and shorten the time before re-use of a facility or an outdoor area. Read more
X-ray of radiological dispersion device (RDD)
Evaluation of Five Technologies for the Mechanical Removal of Radiological Contamination from Concrete Surfaces – Because of the need for clean up that would follow a dirty bomb incident, EPA evaluated five mechanical decontamination tools for their ability to remove radioactive contamination from the surface of unpainted concrete. Read more
Gram stained Bacillus anthracis
Evaluation of Liquid and Foam Decontamination Technologies for Surfaces Contaminated by Bacillus anthracis Spores – EPA investigated the effectiveness of liquid and foam decontamination technologies for surfaces contaminated with biological agents. The test conditions simulated those likely to occur in buildings or in populated outdoor areas. Read more

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2010
Provisional Advisory Level Characteristics
Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Hazardous Agents – There is concern that hazardous substances released during a terrorist attack will contaminate people and the environment, but there are few health-based guidelines for temporary building or outdoor site re-entry or for resumed use of water resources, as might be needed after a large-scale disaster.  Read more
Online Water Quality Monitoring Station
Commonly Used Water Quality Sensors Can Detect Intentional Drinking Water Contamination – The EPA report Distribution System Water Quality Monitoring: Sensor Technology Evaluation Methodology and Results summarizes the testing of various online (i.e., real-time) water quality sensors to see if they could provide dual use for early warning of intentional contamination, as well as monitoring general water quality. Only sensors most commonly used by water utilities were tested. Read more
Impact device
Determining the Impacts of Decontamination Technologies on Building Materials – EPA has investigated the effect of decontamination technologies that might be used on buildings materials and electronics following a terrorist attack with chemical or biological agents. Read more

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2009
Medical professional taking blood pressure of patient
Integration of Water Quality and Public Health Data to Improve Detection of Drinking Water Contamination – In order to develop an early warning system for an intentional or unintentional drinking water contamination event, EPA is collaborating with water utilities and public health agencies to gather, share, and analyze multiple types of data. Read more
Ultrafiltration device for detecting microorganismsAward-winning Ultrafiltration Device Used to Aid in the Detection of Microorganisms in Drinking Water – The possibility of terrorists or criminals intentionally contaminating drinking water with pathogenic microorganisms is a significant public health concern. This concern has given rise to the need to rapidly and effectively sample water to detect small concentrations of potentially dangerous microorganisms. Read more
Chemical Detection Instrument
Technology Performance Summary for Chemical Detection Instruments – All Hazards Receipt Facilities (AHRFs) were developed to prescreen for chemical, radiochemical, and explosive hazards in samples collected during suspected terrorist attacks. Read more

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2008
Applying the Coating with a Sprayer
Removing Radiological Contamination From Concrete Using Strippable Coatings – EPA evaluates homeland security related technologies that will help protect human health and the environment from the adverse impacts of terrorist acts. Radiological attacks may require massive evacuation to protect human health and greatly interfere with economic and business activities. Read more
Report cover
Detecting Biological Contaminants in Water, Using Rapid Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Technologies – In the past, people in the United States have largely taken for granted the convenience of potable municipal water. However, the threat of intentional contamination of our water supplies is becoming a concern because of a rise in the number of terrorist acts around the world. Read more
Report cover
Detecting Contamination Events in Water Distribution Systems, Using Multi-Parameter Sensors – Sensor units can be deployed at multiple locations in water distribution systems and collect general water quality data that can be transmitted to various locations, including remote locations, thereby giving water utilities access to real-time or near real-time data from their overall system. Read more
Report cover
Detecting Chemical Agents and Pesticides in Water, Using Enzymatic Test Kits – There is much interest in technologies that can be used to detect a contamination event as well as dispel or confirm the credibility of a threat. Such technologies include enzymatic test kits, which are generally designed to be handheld and portable. Read more
Report cover
Detecting Biological Contaminants in Water, Using Immunoassay Technologies – Immunoassay tests that can be used to determine the presence of biotoxins and pathogens in water. The immunoassay devices are based on immunological interactions during which specific antibodies react with contaminants, or antigens, to produce a response indicating the presence of the contaminant. Read more

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2007
Wipe sampling in process
Wipe Sampling – Collecting surface matter, or wipe sampling, is an important technique for estimating contamination on a variety of exposed surfaces. The procedures vary widely depending on the contaminant of concern and the surface being sampled. EPA research aims to identify surface contaminant collection methods, including sampling media, wetting solvents, and collection techniques for chemical, biological, and radiological agents. Read more

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2006
Interior of heated incinerator
Thermal Treatment Processes – EPA has examined various thermal destruction processes and used computer simulation to model the feasibility, efficacy, and likely by-product formation of thermal treatment processes on highly contaminated materials: for example, botulism-tainted canned food, building material residue contaminated with chemical or biological agents (CB), or wastes generated during decontamination activities. Read more
Circuit Board
Biological Inactivation Efficiency of HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Devices – One potential method of terrorism is the intentional introduction of biological warfare agents (BWAs) into the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of target structures in order to distribute pathogens. Read more

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