Requirements for Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities (TSDFs)
Regulations specific to hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) pertain to:
- Air Emissions – RCRA regulations require TSDFs to control the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from process vents from certain hazardous waste treatment processes; hazardous waste management equipment (e.g., valves, pumps, compressors); and containers, tanks, and surface impoundments. See RCRA Organic Air Emission Standards for TSDFs and Generators (PDF) (8 pp., 302 K, about PDF)
- Closure – EPA established closure requirements for hazardous waste management units to ensure that once TSDFs end operations and stop managing hazardous waste that they will not pose a future threat to human health and the environment. There are general closure and post-closure care requirements applicable to all hazardous waste management units, as well as unit specific requirements for each type of unit (e.g., landfill, tank, surface impoundment).
- Corrective Action/Hazardous Waste Cleanup – RCRA requires TSDF owners and operators to investigate and cleanup hazardous waste releases at hazardous waste facilities. The RCRA Corrective Action Program allows these facilities to address the investigation and cleanup of these hazardous releases themselves. Cleanup at closed or abandoned RCRA sites can also take place under the Superfund program.
- Financial Assurance – RCRA requires all TSDFs to demonstrate that they will have the financial resources to properly closed the facility or unit when its operational life is over or provide the appropriate emergency response in the case of an accidental release. The financial assurance requirements establish several mechanisms for TSDF owners to demonstrate these resources will be available when needed.
- Ground Water Monitoring - RCRA requires TSDFs to monitor the ground water beneath their facilities to ensure the facility is not contaminating this valuable resource. The regulations require the installation groundwater monitoring wells and the establishment of a groundwater sampling regiment.
- Land Disposal Restrictions – EPA established the land disposal restrictions (LDR) program to further protect groundwater from hazardous waste contamination. The LDR standards require all hazardous waste to be treated prior to being placed on the land for final disposal.
- Permits and Permitting - To closely regulate and ensure proper hazardous waste management practices, RCRA requires TSDFs to obtain permits to demonstrate compliance with all applicable hazardous waste regulations.
- Preparedness and Prevention Requirements for RCRA TSDFs (Response to Chemical Safety Board Recommendation 2007-01-I-NC) (PDF) (8 pp, 3.5MB, about PDF) - This memorandum provides guidance for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting authorities to ensure that state and local authorities and first responders have sufficient information for emergency preparedness, prevention, and response at RCRA treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs).