Petroleum-based oil describes a broad range of natural hydrocarbon-based substances and refined petroleum products, each having a different chemical composition. As a result, each type of crude oil and refined product has distinct physical properties that affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, the hazard it may pose to marine and human life, and the likelihood that it will pose a threat to natural and man-made resources. For example, light refined products, such as gasoline and kerosene, spread on water surfaces and penetrate porous soils quickly. Fire and toxic hazards are high, but the products evaporate quickly and leave little residue. Alternatively, heavier refined oil products may pose a lesser fire and toxic hazard and do not spread on water as readily. Heavier oils are more persistent, however, and may present a greater remediation challenge.
The rate at which an oil spill spreads will determine its effect on the environment. Most oils tend to spread horizontally into a smooth and slippery surface, called a slick, on top of the water. Factors which affect the ability of an oil spill to spread include surface tension, specific gravity, and viscosity.
- Surface tension is the measure of attraction between the surface molecules of a liquid. The higher the oil's surface tension, the more likely a spill will remain in place. If the surface tension of the oil is low, the oil will spread even without help from wind and water currents. Because increased temperatures can reduce a liquid's surface tension, oil is more likely to spread in warmer waters than in very cold waters.
- Specific gravity is the density of a substance compared to the density of water. Since most oils are lighter than water, they lie flat on top of it. However, the specific gravity of an oil spill can increase if the lighter substances within the oil evaporate.
- Viscosity is the measure of a liquid's resistance to flow. The higher the viscosity of the oil, the greater the tendency for it to stay in one place.