Glossary of Industry and Program Terms
Terms Relating to the SmartWay Transport Partnership
ATA - American Trucking Associations
API - American Petroleum Institute
Advanced Lubricant Technology (Synthetic Lubricants) - Low friction engine and drive train lubricants commonly known as synthetic engine oil and synthetic transmission & drive train lubricants, these synthetic products can improve fuel efficiency by as much as 3 percent by reducing friction between parts. Synthetic lubricants are designed to withstand the extreme pressures of the engine, transmission and drive train better than traditional oils. In addition to increased fuel efficiency, synthetic engine lubricants reduce wear and increase maintenance intervals.
Aerodynamic Drag - Wind resistance
Aerodynamic Mirrors - Mirrors with rounded casings on the front that eliminate flat surfaces. They are usually black or colored plastic rather than the flat backed, chrome mirrors on more traditional tractors.
Aero Profile Tractor - These tractors generally have a short, streamlined hood with aerodynamic contouring. The grill may be angled slightly, rather than completely vertical. The exhaust pipe is generally behind the cab rather than along the side.
Automatic Tire Inflation System - Automatic tire inflation systems monitor and continually adjust the level of pressurized air to tires, maintaining proper tire pressure even when the truck is moving.
Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) - APUs can power a variety of comfort features for drivers looking to reduce idling. APUs can provide heat, air conditioning, power for household electrical devices and engine heat. Most units combine a small heater, a compressor for air conditioning and an alternator. APUs may be powered by diesel fuel directly from the tractor fuel tank, or by a bank of rechargeable batteries. Diesel driven APUs can operate for five hours or more on a single gallon of diesel fuel. Costs for these devices range from $3,500 to $9,000, but are typically in the $6,000 to $7,000 range. For a partial list of manufacturers and device specifications, visit the SmartWay website at http://www.epa.gov/smartway/technology/verified-tech.htm.For locomotives, APUs automatically shut down the main locomotive engine idle while maintaining all vital main engine systems at greatly reduced fuel consumption.
Bin Center - A drop off facility that is smaller than a public warehouse
Boxcar - An enclosed railcar used to transport freight
Bulk Cargo - Unpacked dry cargo such as grain, iron ore or coal. Any commodity shipped in this way is said to be in bulk
Cab Air Dam Front Bumper - A rounded bumper that improves airflow within the engine compartment as well as under-cab airflow. It is usually plastic and the same color as the cab rather than the vertical chrome bumpers on more traditional tractors.
Cab-Over-Engine Tractor - These tractors have the driver sitting over the engine. There is no front hood on these tractors.
Cab Roof Deflector - A straight piece of plastic or fiberglass that extends from the top of the cab at an angle. It usually has open sides and may be retractable.
Cab Roof Fairing - A roof fairing that extends partially over the cab of the truck with enclosed sides. It may not line up perfectly with the sides of the cab.
Cab Side Fairing - Extends downward from the base of the cab between the wheels of the tractor , covering the open space and streamlining the fuel tank(s). Most cab side fairings have steps to reach the cab molded directly into the fairing.
Chassis - A specialized framework that carries a rail or marine container
Class 1 Railroad - A line haul freight railroad of US ownership with operating revenue in excess of $272.0 million. There are seven Class 1 Railroads in the United States. Two Mexican and two Canadian railroads would also qualify, if they were US companies.
CLM - Council of Logistics Management
CO - Carbon monoxide
CO2 - Carbon dioxide
Container - An enclosed box that carries goods.
Container on Flat Car (COFC) - A container that is transported on a rail flatcar. It can be shipped via tractor/trailer using a chassis as the wheel section.
Contract of Affreightment - A contract between a cargo shipper and carrier for the transport of multiple cargoes over a period of time. Contracts are individually negotiated and usually include cargo description, quantities per shipment and in total, load and discharge ports, freight rates and duration of the contract.
Crossdock - Crossdock operations in a warehouse involve moving goods between different trucks to consolidate loads without intermediate storage.
Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) - A DOC is a device added to the exhaust system of a tractor that reduces the amount of particulate matter (PM) emitted. The device is generally a large honeycomb structure with an active catalyst made up of a layer of precious metal. Emission reductions are approximately 20 percent for PM, 40 percent for hydrocarbons and 50 percent for carbon monoxide. DOCs have a negligible impact on tractor fuel efficiency. Costs are dependent upon the size of the engine and are usually between $1,000 and $2,000 per unit, making them an ideal retrofit device.
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) - A DPF is similar to a diesel oxidation catalyst and is one of the two major technologies being employed to meet the 2007 emissions regulations. A DPF is considered a flow-through device whereby the exhaust is forced through a honeycomb-shaped ceramic filter that is blocked at one end. Because of this design, it is important to monitor the exhaust back pressure and ensure the DPF is cleaned properly so that the filter does not become blocked. Most filters are designed to clean themselves (referred to as passive regeneration) but this requires an elevated engine temperature to burn off the trapped PM. For vehicles that don't meet the minimum temperature requirements, the filter will trigger what is referred to as an active regeneration event. This means that some diesel fuel will be allowed to pass through the engine un-combusted and will be burnt over the catalyst, allowing the PM within the filter to be burned away. One major difference between the DOC and DPF is that the DPF requires the use of ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel with sulfur content at or below 15 parts per million. Emission reductions are approximately 50 - 90 percent for PM, 90 percent for hydrocarbons and 90 percent for carbon monoxide.
Direct Fired Heater (DFH) - DFHs, or bunk heaters, are devices that can reduce idling by providing in-cabin heat for drivers in cold temperatures. Some product models offer an engine heating option that will also keep the engine warm overnight. Most DFHs operate by using fuel directly from the main tractor fuel tank. These devices can generally provide 10 to 20 hours of heat on a single gallon of diesel fuel, depending on the settings and options. Typical costs for this device range from $900 to $3,000. For a partial list of manufacturers and device specifications, visit the SmartWay website at at http://www.epa.gov/smartway/technology/verified-tech.htm.
Distribution Center (DC) - DCs store and sort goods using warehouse space so that full truckloads of merchandise can be sent to a single destination or to multiple destinations along a specific route.
Doubles - Doubles are two 28-foot trailers that are pulled by one tractor. Doubles also are known as "double bottoms."
Double Drivers - Having two drivers in the cab instead of one allows for the continual movement of freight, thereby eliminating the need for overnight stops and idling. Once the first driver reaches their maximum allowed driving time, the second driver commences driving while the first driver rests in the sleeper berth. This type of operation is best suited for expedited or perishable freight moving over long distances.
Drayage Firms - Motor carriers that provide local pickup and delivery of trailers and containers (on chassis)
Driver Tag Teams - Driver tag teams are known by many different names in the industry, such as slip seating, or drop and swap. This strategy involves one driver going from point A to point B, where a second driver then takes it from point B to point C. Because of the driver switch, overnight idling is not necessary.
Engine Shutdown - Engine shutdown is the automatic or voluntary shutoff of the tractor engine after a certain amount of time. Engine shutdown can be as simple as a corporate shut down or no idle policy or it can be more complex with the use of electronic devices or software encoded onto the engine control chip that automatically shuts the engine down. Engine shutdown works most effectively when combined with a comprehensive driver training program and driver incentive program. For a partial list of automatic shutdown devices, visit the SmartWay website at http://www.epa.gov/smartway/technology/verified-tech.htm.
Flatbed Trailer Tarps - Trailer tarps properly drawn over irregularly shaped loads can improve airflow and decrease wind resistance, thereby improving fuel economy.
Freight Carriers - Companies that haul freight, also called "for-hire" carriers. Methods of transportation include trucking, railroads, airlines, and sea borne shipping
Fronthaul - The first leg of the truck trip that involves hauling a load or several loads to targeted destinations.
Intermodal Transport - Movement of goods using more than one means of transportation. The most common intermodal arrangement is for goods to be moved by truck at their origin, transferred to rail for the long haul between regions, and transferred again to truck near their destination.
Larger Capacity Trailer Strategies - The use of larger capacity trailers eliminates the need to send multiple tractors to the same destination. By combining loads into larger trailers , companies free up tractors and drivers for other revenue generating loads. For smaller amounts of freight traveling to multiple destinations on the same route, double and triple trailers may be an effective method of moving a larger amount of freight with a single tractor and driver.
Less-Than-Truckload (LTL) Carriers - A LTL operation collects small shipments from local pick-ups, moves them over the road between terminals in truckloads, and breaks them up at the destination terminal, from where it makes local deliveries.
Lumping - When a driver assists with loading and unloading the trailer contents.
Nonattainment - Any area that does not meet (or that contributes to ambient air quality in a nearby area that does not meet) the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard for the pollutant.
Nose Cone - Rounded deflectors attached to the front of a straight truck or box van that extends slightly over the cab of the truck. These devices may also be known as aerodynamic bubbles.
NOX - Oxides of Nitrogen
Owner/Operator - A truck driver who owns and operates his/her tractor/trailer.
PM - Particulate matter
Private Trucking Fleets - Private fleets serve the needs of their owners, and do not ordinarily offer commercial trucking services to other customers. Private fleets typically perform distribution or service functions.
Public Warehouse - A facility where companies rent space to store their goods
Rear-drag Reduction Device - An addition to the rear of the trailer that is used to reduce aerodynamic drag. There are several different types, but a standard rear drag reduction device is usually an addition to the rear sides and possibly top of the trailer that fan in slightly towards the back door(s). A boat tail fairing is a large rounded addition to the rear of the trailer that covers the entire back side.
Reflashing (Chip Reflashing) - Reflashing involves reconfiguring the engine control chip with new software that recalibrates the tractor engine. This recalibration is meant to lower nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by slightly modifying the combustion parameters within the engine. This strategy applies to certain engines built by seven different engine manufacturers (Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel, Mack, Renault, Navistar/International & Volvo) between the years of 1993 and 1998. Please note that as of March 2004, the California Air Resources Board (CARB) has mandated the reflashing of medium and heavy duty diesel vehicles in the state of California, on a phase-in schedule, at no extra cost to the vehicle owner. For more information, please refer to the CARB rule at http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/chip04/chip04.htm.
Refrigerated Carriers - Truckload carriers designed to keep perishables good refrigerated. The food industry typically uses this type of carrier.
Roof Fairings - An integrated air deflector mounted on the top of the cab
Route Trucks Delivery - Trucks that travel fixed routes
Satellite Tracking / Dispatch / Operations Packages Technology and software packages can be used to improve operational performance and fuel efficiency. Some common uses of these packages include route selection, asset tracking and reduction of empty miles traveled.
Shippers - retailers and manufacturers of goods that require shipping
Shipper-Carriers - Shipper-carriers (also called private carriers) are companies with goods to be shipped that own or manage their own vehicle fleets. Many large retailers, particularly groceries and "big box" stores, are shipper-carriers.
Single Wide-based Tires - Single wide-base tires can improve truck fuel economy by reducing rolling resistance and tractor tare weight (empty weight). They also enable a lower center of gravity for tank trailers, thereby improving stability and safety. Wide-base tires can be retread. Preliminary testing show fuel economy improvements in the range of 2 to 5 percent.
Speed Management Policy - Reduced highway speeds can dramatically improve fuel efficiency. A long haul truck that reduces its speed from 70 miles per hour to 65 miles per hour can improve fuel efficiency by approximately 5 percent. Reduced highway speed also reduces engine and brake wear, which cuts down on the frequency and cost of maintenance stops. The most effective speed management programs combine electronic engine controls with driver training and incentives.
Straight Truck - Straight trucks do not have a separate tractor and trailer. The driving compartment, engine and trailer are one unit.
Subhauler - A subhauler drives a tractor under contract for a company. Usually a subhauler is an owner/operator or a small company.
Tractor - The tractor is the driver compartment and engine of the truck. It has two or three axles.
Trailer - The part of the truck that carries the goods.
Trailer Drops - When a driver drops off a full truck at a warehouse and picks up an empty one.
Trailer Gap Reduction - Trailer gap reducers are usually rounded additions to the sides and possibly top of the front of the trailer that also reduce the gap between the tractor and trailer.
Trailer on Flat Car (TOFC) - A TOFC (also called a piggyback) is a truck trailer that is transported on a rail flat car.
Trailer Side Skirts - Trailer side skirts, or trailer fairings, extend down from the bottom of the trailer to cover part of the open space between the tractor and the rear wheels.
Truckload (TL) Carriers - A TL carrier moves a shipment, also known as a full truckload, directly from origin to destination.
Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) -
Truck plazas equipped with TSE systems allow
drivers to draw electrical power and in some cases, heating, cooling,
telecommunication, and Internet hookups from a ground source. Different
systems may or may not require the purchase of an adaptor to connect
to the tractor.
Weight Reduction - Weight reduction refers to components that reduce the tare weight (empty weight) of the tractor. This is done by using lighter weight materials, such as aluminum. Common components that can be substituted include wheels, axle hubs, fuel tanks and the cab frame. Downsizing to a smaller engine can also provide significant weight savings.