Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Compendium
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EPA will periodically update this compendium. If you would like to submit a resource for possible inclusion in this compendium, please contact Hal White (email@example.com).
This PVI compendium provides links to resources that contain information about PVI. Please use the tabs at the top of the pages to navigate through the PVI compendium. The resources below provide introductory information.
- Overview Of PVI
- PVI Guide
- PVI Database
- PVI Technical Supporting Documents
- Additional Vapor Intrusion Resources
Overview Of PVI
Vapor intrusion occurs when vapor-phase contaminants migrate from subsurface sources into buildings. One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. The intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern due to potential threats to safety (e.g., explosive concentrations of petroleum vapors or methane) and possible adverse health effects from inhalation exposure to toxic chemicals.
- Technical Guide For Addressing Petroleum Vapor Intrusion At Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites (PDF) (129 pp, 2.8MB, About PDF)
- Evaluation Of Empirical Data To Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria For Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds (EPA 510-R-13-001), January 2013 (PDF) (144 pp, 8.6MB) This technical report evaluates the PVI database.
- PVI External Peer Review Record (PDF) (130 pp, 2.6MB)
- PVI Database (Microsoft Access Database File, 7MB) This is the complete PVI database file and presents data from 74 sites, comprised of 69 sites in 10 states, 4 sites in Canada, and 1 site in Australia.
- PVI Database Data Dictionary (23K, You may need the MS Excel Viewer to read this file ) This is the key to the data fields in the PVI database.
- PVI Database Diagram (PDF) (1 pg, 33K) This is a schematic of the structure of the PVI database.
- PVI Database Export (982K, You may need the MS Excel Viewer to read this file ) This is an abridged version of the full MS Access PVI database.
- Australian PVI Database (1.1MB, You may need the MS Excel Viewer to read this file ) This file contains data for 124 sites in Australia (6,000 records). Analysis of these data are presented in Appendix C of the PVI Database Report.
- Australian PVI Data Export (310K, You may need the MS Excel Viewer to read this file ) This file contains 1,080 paired measurements of petroleum hydrocarbon soil vapor and groundwater source concentrations from 124 sites.
- Short Summary of Australian Database (PDF) (2 pp, 40K) Description of the Australian database including narrative of climatic conditions.
PVI Technical Supporting Documents
- 3-D Modeling Of Aerobic Biodegradation Of Petroleum Vapors: Effect Of Building Area
Size On Oxygen Concentration Below The Slab (EPA 510-R-13-002), July 2013 (PDF) (79 pp, 1.2MB) This technical report presents results of 3-D finite difference vapor transport
modeling simulations designed to systematically assess the development of an oxygen shadow
beneath a building.
- 3-D Modeling External Peer Review Record (PDF) (130 pp, 2.6MB)
- An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks (EPA 600/R-13/047), December 2012 (PDF) (35 pp, 2.9MB)
This ORD Issue Paper presents a graphical, data-driven approach to screen buildings for vulnerability to PVI.
- Spreadsheet for An Approach for Developing Site-Specific Lateral and Vertical Inclusion Zones within which Structures Should be Evaluated for Petroleum Vapor Intrusion due to Releases of Motor Fuel from Underground Storage Tanks (134K, You may need the MS Excel Viewer to read this file) This spreadsheet is intended to facilitate application of the concepts illustrated in the ORD issue paper (above).
- An Approach that Uses the Concentrations of Hydrocarbon Compounds in Soil Gas at the Source of Contamination to Evaluate the Potential for Intrusion of Petroleum Vapors into Buildings (PVI) (PDF) (EPA/600/R-14/318), December 2014 (131 pp, 11.6MB)
This ORD issue paper presents an alternative method to sub-slab monitoring or indoor air sampling for screening a site for potential PVI.
- A New Screening Method for Methane in Soil Gas Using Existing Groundwater Monitoring Wells . Jewell, K.P. and J.T. Wilson. 2011. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 31:82-94. This paper describes a protocol developed by EPA’s Office of Research and Development to sample soil gas from conventional groundwater monitoring wells that had some portion of their screen in the vadose zone.
- Petroleum Hydrocarbons And Chlorinated Solvents Differ In Their Potential For Vapor Intrusion (PDF). EPA. March 2012. (13 pp, 655K)
This document describes how petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents behave differently in the subsurface and how these differences can influence whether there is a potential for vapor intrusion to occur.
Additional Vapor Intrusion Resources
- OSWER's Vapor Intrusion website.
This website provides basic information regarding non-petroleum vapor intrusion (e.g., vapor intrusion from chlorinated solvents) including technical and policy documents to support environmental investigations, and highlights of recent and upcoming activities related to vapor intrusion.
- Federal Docket (EPA-HQ-RCRA-2002-0033).
This docket contains documents and public comments pertaining to EPA's draft vapor intrusion policy guidance.
- Vapor Intrusion Issue Area on EPA’s CLU-IN.
CLU-IN issue areas bundle available information associated with specific topics. These issue areas are updated with information from federal cleanup programs, state sources, universities, nonprofit organizations, peer-reviewed publications, and public-private partnerships.
For additional information about EPA's PVI efforts, please contact Hal White at firstname.lastname@example.org.