2007 Stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards
Eclipse Aviation Corporation
For Development of the PhostrEx™ Fire Suppression System
Eclipse Aviation embraced significant business, technical, and financial risk to develop and certify a new non-ozone depleting fire suppression technology for aircraft engine nacelles. This innovative material and dispersal technology, PhostrEx™, is the first plausible alternative in this application to Halon 1301, a fire suppressant that was phased out under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. PhostrEx™ fire suppression systems occupy one tenth the space, have one tenth the mass, and have less than one tenth the life cycle cost of the Halon systems that they are destined to replace.
The development and certification of a Halon alternative for aircraft fire suppression is a major milestone in the effort to eliminate ozone depleting compounds from the aviation industry. The discovery of PhostrEx™ will allow replacement of Halon1301 for certain aviation fire suppression applications without compromises to system weight, volume, and performance and will protect stratospheric ozone, and may lead to wider non-aviation applications in the future.
For Reducing Refrigerant Emissions Caused by Automotive Service Equipment
The SPX Robinair next-generation refrigerant recovery and recycling machines are the first to meet the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard J-2788, which requires that equipment to recover 95% of the refrigerant and recharge to within 1/2 ounce. Previously, refrigerant recovery machines left behind as much as 30% of the refrigerant which would then escape to the atmosphere.
SPX was an active partner in the Mobile Air Conditioning Climate Protection Partnership founded by SAE, the US EPA, and the Mobile Air Conditioning Society Worldwide to reduce emissions of R-12 and R-134a from motor vehicle air conditioners. By providing facilities, equipment and technical expertise, SPX Robinair helped the Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (I-MAC) partnership improve the efficiency of mobile air conditioners by 30% while simultaneously reducing refrigerant emissions by 50%. As a result of this program, the SAE recently approved tighter standards for automotive A/C recovery, recycle and recharge equipment, including the new J-2788 standard, which will usher in a new generation of atmospheric protection.
ORGANIZATION, ASSOCIATION & TEAM AWARDS
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Essential Use
For Leadership in Ensuring a Successful Transition Away from Essential use CFC Metered Dose Inhalers
The FDA Essential Use Team has demonstrated exemplary leadership and inter-Agency cooperation in phasing out class I ozone depleting substances (ODS) in essential use metered dose inhalers (MDIs). As established under the Clean Air Act, FDA works in cooperation with EPA’s Stratospheric Protection Division in an annual rulemaking to allocate essential use allowances for the manufacture of MDIs. Dr. Chowdhury, Dr. Meyer, Mr. Mitchell, and Dr. Sullivan have provided vital medical and legal expertise to the rulemaking process and have largely contributed to the success of the essential use program, which is in its final years. As of December 31, 2008, CFC-albuterol MDI will be phased out in the United States and the MDI essential use program will largely be completed.
Furthermore, Dr. Chowdhury, Dr. Meyer, Mr. Mitchell, and Dr. Sullivan have worked effectively with the MDI manufacturers and patient advocacy groups over many years to ensure a smooth transition to CFC-free MDIs. Most recently, Dr. Chowdhury was a member of the US delegation to the 18th Meeting of the Parties where his contributions were essential to the success of the negotiations.
- Badrul Chowdhury
- Robert J. Meyer, M.D.
- Wayne H. Mitchell
- Eugene J. Sullivan
Jardines de los Andes and Flores de Funza
For Leadership and Information Sharing in the Production of Cut Flowers without Methyl Bromide
The Colombian flower industry, the second largest world flower exporter since the early 1990s, does not rely on methyl bromide. With nearly 7000 Ha in production providing nearly 80,000 jobs and exports valued at over USD $700 million last year, Colombian flower growers have learned to manage soil pests and diseases without methyl bromide mainly through an Integrated Pest Management approach. Since 1996, the Colombian Association of Flower Exporters ASOCOLFLORES launched FLORVERDE®, a social and environmental program designed to help growers produce flowers within a strict framework of sustainability, worker welfare and environment friendly practices. A team of experts supervises compliance with the detailed Code of Conduct, which prohibits methyl bromide use, and an auditing company certifies participating farms.
Jardines de los Andes and Flores Funza deserve special mention for their constant support to UNIDO projects, their generosity in sharing pest management strategies, and the outstanding level of sustainability achieved in their flower farms. They have made time unconditionally for growers from Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Turkey, Mexico, Argentina, and other countries. They have provided ample information on costs and results of alternatives, how to solve problems that could arise and how to adapt these technologies to specific circumstances.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
(NOAA) Ozone-Depleting Gas Measurement Team
For Measuring the Effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol in Reducing Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Repairing the Ozone Layer
Stephen Montzka, Geoff Dutton, Bradley Hall, James Butler, and James Elkins have been reliably and consistently monitoring the presence of halocarbons and other trace gases in the atmosphere for more than a decade. They also have tracked the presence of and removal of ozone-depleting substances in the atmosphere, in the oceans, and in polar snow. The team reported the first measured declines in ozone depleting substances (ODS) in the troposphere. Their continued observations have found some natural sources and sinks for methyl bromide and a lack of natural sources for other ODS.
Geoff Dutton leads the remote instrument measurements of the major CFCs. Brad Hall’s work on preparing and maintaining standard scales and calibrating standards used by field instruments ensures long-term consistency and accuracy of the data, which are relied on by researchers, governments and the international community. Steve Montzka is responsible for the measurements of most other ODSs, such as other CFCs, HCFCs, chlorinated hydrocarbons, CH 3Br, and other brominated gases. He takes a lead role in publishing the results along with Jim Butler, who has improved our understanding of the ocean’s role in influencing ODS amounts in the atmosphere and derived 100-year atmospheric histories from air trapped in Antarctic snow. James Elkins has directed this team for over 20 years, providing necessary support for the research.
- James H. Butler
- Geoff S. Dutton
- James W. Elkins
- Bradley D. Hall
- Stephen A. Montzka
Regional Intelligence Liaison Office for Asia and
the Pacific, World Customs Organization
For Cooperation with UNEP in Combating Illegal Trade in Ozone Depleting Substances
The Regional Intelligence Liaison Office for Asia and the Pacific (RILO A/P) is the focal point of intelligence collection, analysis, dissemination and international law enforcement cooperation among customs administrations in this rapidly-developing region. Working closely with UNEP to combat illegal trade in ozone depleting substances (ODS), they have raised awareness among customs authorities and have facilitated information and intelligence exchange on ozone issues. This led to, for example, a meeting between Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam to address illegal trade in a more effective way.
RILO A/P analyzed ODS smuggling trends and disseminated information to key customs stakeholders in the region, other RILOs around the world, the World Customs Organization, Interpol and other international enforcement organizations.
RILO A/P also coordinated Project Sky Hole Patching to combat illegal trade in ODS and dangerous waste in the region. The program monitors the movement of suspicious shipments of ODS across several customs territories, involving customs administrations, environment authorities, UNEP and its Compliance Assistance Programme, OzonAction Programme, Basel Convention Regional Centers and other key international organizations. Twenty customs administrations have joined the project, and more are expected to participate. The project is curbing smuggling of environmentally sensitive commodities and enhancing the cooperation between customs authorities and environmental agencies.
Secretariat-General of the Cooperation Council for
the Arab States of the Gulf
For Creation of the Unified Regulation on ODS for the GCC Member States
In December 2005, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for the Arab States made a giant step forward in ozone protection by enacting Unified Legislation on Ozone-Depleting Substances. This Unified Legislation covers all six GCC member states Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates and strengthens the cooperation and coordination amongst members to monitor and control ODSs.
The Unified Legislation is the result of the good work of the GCC Secretariat-General. The Secretariat first coordinated information sharing symposia specific to the Gulf region and then worked in close cooperation with the GCC Ozone Group and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) to draft and submit the proposed legislation for discussion amongst National Focal Points. Thereafter the Secretariat convinced the high-ranking representatives of GCC member states to finalize the submitted legislation. Thanks to the Secretariat’s efforts, the proposed Unified Regulations were approved by the Environmental Ministers representing Environmental Authorities of the GCC; then by the Ministers of Foreign Affairs, and ultimately by the leaders of the GCC member states.
Skin Cancer Awareness and Prevention Team
For Leadership of the National Council on Skin Cancer
Dr. Allan Halpern and Alan Geller have shown exemplary leadership as co-chairs of the National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention, facilitating skin cancer awareness, prevention, and early detection through education and promotion of sun-safe behaviors. The most common cancer in the United States, with one person dying every hour, skin cancer is nonetheless a largely preventable disease. Under this team’s direction, the Council has advanced a national agenda for prevention through the efforts of its over 30 member organizations under the core leadership of the American Academy of Dermatology, Skin Cancer Foundation, American Cancer Society, and Melanoma Research Foundation
Alan Geller utilized his extensive academic and professional contacts to bring in outside organizations with a broad skin cancer prevention focus and background, setting an ambitious agenda. He also has spearheaded research on teen tanning issues.
Dr. Halpern serves as the public face of the Council, appearing on numerous TV programs to speak about skin cancer prevention and early detection. He also designed a strategic plan and structure for maintaining the Council, including securing funding from member organizations. Several of Dr. Halpern's patients have contributed funds for specific projects, reflecting the great esteem his individual patients have for him.
- Allan Halpern, M.D., Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
- Alan Geller, RN, MPH, Boston University School of Medicine
Omar E. El-Arini
For Leadership and Dedication in Creating an Effective Organizational Structure to Ensure the Montreal Protocol’s Success
When he arrived in Montreal in 1991, to take up his post as the Chief Officer of the Secretariat of the Multilateral Fund, Omar El-Arini had little more than a typewriter, a broad framework that had been negotiated by the Parties and an unyielding commitment to protect the ozone layer. Over the next 12 years, Dr. El-Arini hired and trained a professional staff and with the Fund’s Executive Committee gave life to what was originally nothing more than mere concepts embedded in the Parties’ negotiated text. He personally pioneered the interpretation and application of eligible incremental costs, and oversaw the development of a framework that led to the approval of over 4,631 projects in 133 developing countries. He pioneered the shift from a project-by-project approach to the sectorial and national phaseout approach. He oversaw the creation of a transparent funding allocation process based on annual performance targets. This performance-based system has led to a developing country compliance rate unparalleled in any other global environmental treaty. His work facilitated the elimination of over 181,563 tonnes of ozone depletion potential from consumption, and demonstrated that with the proper support, developing countries are willing, ready and able to be full partners in global environmental protection.
For Leadership in Implementation of the Montreal Protocol in Developing Countries
Atul Bagai, a member of the Indian Administrative Service, has served as the National Ozone Officer between 1998-2000. During his tenure, he handled significant strategy and policy issues, facilitating India’s Ozone Depleting Substances (ODSs) phaseout strategy and compliance with the Montreal Protocol. He was instrumental in finalizing regulations for controlling production and consumption of ODS, negotiated sector phaseout agreements for reduction of CFC production in India, and participated in several teams to develop MP policy and regulatory responses.
He currently serves as UNEP DTIE’s OzonAction network coordinator for South Asia. He is facilitating implementation of ODS phaseout activities in 38 countries through the Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP). Drawing strengths through regional presence in the Regional Office of Asia and the Pacific, he has assisted large (e.g., China and India) and small countries (e.g., Bhutan and Afghanistan) on implementation of MP activities. He has assisted in designing strategic approaches on development and implementation, of institutional mechanisms and innovative capacity building activities in the countries. During his tenure, he has reoriented the networking activities for providing compliance assistance to countries. Using UNEP’s strategic approach focusing on low volume consuming countries, he has taken up challenging tasks of getting least-developed countries to ratify the Protocol and expeditiously implement cost-effective capacity building and regulatory mechanisms to achieve compliance, thus strengthening sound chemical management.
James P. Gilreath
For Leadership in Researching Methyl Bromide Alternatives and Documenting and Vocalizing Their Effectiveness
Since the mid 1990s Professor James P. Gilreath has carried out many innovative trials to identify methyl bromide alternatives for tomatoes, peppers, strawberries, cucurbits and cut flowers. He helped adapt and improve the application methods and procedures for combinations of alternatives to achieve the best efficacy. He carried out much of this work with insufficient funds, and worked long hours of overtime, showing substantial commitment and dedication.
Professor Gilreath carried out innovative work in combining Low Permeability Barrier Films with alternative fumigants, increasing their efficacy and allowing the use of reduced doses. This work has been particularly valuable in identifying treatments that are able to control nutsedge, a problematic weed.
He also took a brave stance in international public meetings, pointing out that reported differences between the results of methyl bromide and alternatives often were not statistically significant.
Dr. Gilreath has worked collaboratively with growers, suppliers, researchers, and extension field personnel in carrying out field validation studies of methyl bromide alternatives on commercial farms in Florida. He has shown the results of research and field validation studies to grower groups, participated in many extension events, and responded to information requests from individual growers, helping to spread the use of ozone-friendly alternatives.
Ghazi Faleh Odat
For Crafting a Model for Western Asia Countries for Ozone Layer Protection
Mr. Ghazi Odat has headed the National Ozone Unit of Jordan since its establishment in 1992, with implementation of more than 60 projects to reduce consumption of ozone depleting substances (ODSs). Mr. Odat has shown continuous devotion to this cause and participated in almost all MOP, ExCom and ImpCom Meetings, in order to be fully aware of Montreal Protocol changes and decisions.
He leveraged his senior position to directly relay ozone related issues to high-level decision makers in the government. Thus Mr. Odat played a major active role in convincing these decision makers to ratify all Montreal Protocol amendments. Thus Jordan became the first country in West Asia to fully ratify all amendments when they were put in force.
Again Mr. Odat’s dedication was reflected when Jordan became one of the first West Asia member countries to enact and fully enforce national legislation for control of ODSs. His role has been vital in enabling Jordan to eliminate ODSs in their main industries and change the production line and activities to use ozone friendly alternatives in both the private and public sectors. A major milestone of this ongoing contribution is Jordan’s success in reducing its consumption by more than 90%.
Dr. Sachidananda Satapathy
For Leadership to Achieve Ozone Protection While Maintaining Strong Economic Development
Dr. Sachidananda Satapathy was closely associated with the implementation of the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol in India from 1994 to 2002. During this period, he developed and implemented regulatory and fiscal measures, implemented, monitored and evaluated ODS phase-out projects, and helped disseminate information and awareness. Through his active involvement, India achieved its first compliance target of freezing of production and consumption of CFC and other subsequent targets.
Dr. Satapathy has participated in various Montreal Protocol meetings, and helped negotiate technical input for the replenishment of the Multilateral Fund for 2003-2005. He helped implement the Technical Assistance Component, monitoring and evaluation projects under Sector Phase-out Plan, and is coordinating India’s CFC consumption phaseout in the foam, commercial refrigeration and aerosol sectors. He has helped deploy technical services and servicing equipment to implement the phaseout, and also helped achieve an 85% reduction in CTC consumption in India including total phase-out in the metal-cleaning sector.
Dr. Satapathy has also contributed significantly in the development of regulatory measures to specifically implement a licensing system controlling ODS trade in India. His services are ensuring that the Government of India meets its commitments under the Montreal Protocol.
For Reduction of Methyl Bromide Needs in Quarantine and Pre-shipment
Mr. Willem Veldman, a Senior Inspector in the Environmental Inspectorate of the Dutch government, has been a leader in enforcing methyl bromide (MB) legislation and encouraging the use of alternatives in postharvest and quarantine and preshipment (QPS) fumigations. His enforcement activities resulted in a 55% reduction in QPS MB use from 1998 to 2002. As a result of his efforts the number of QPS MB fumigations in the Netherlands has been kept to a minimum, even though Rotterdam is one of the largest shipping ports in the world and international standards have substantially increased MB fumigations worldwide.
Mr. Willem Veldman showed leadership, initiating improved guidelines for the use of MB in shipping containers after more than 110 legal infringements in fumigation methods were identified in 2003. This led to several prosecutions for improper fumigations.
Mr. Willem Veldman also initiated innovative research on methyl bromide gas residues detected in incoming shipping container. Mr. Veldman has frequently contacted firms who were responsible for the import to and export from Europe of products treated with MB, and because of his work, several firms have stopped or decreased the use of MB for products, preventing several thousands kilograms of methyl bromide use.
Note to awardees: When referring to any EPA Award, please include the year in which the award was received.