Amendments to the Montreal Protocol
The original Montreal Protocol, signed in 1987, was the first step in international efforts to protect stratospheric ozone. Since that time, the Montreal Protocol has been repeatedly strengthened by both controlling additional ozone-depleting substances (ODS) as well as by moving up the date by which already controlled substances must be phased out.
Under the original Montreal Protocol agreement (1987), developed countries were required to begin phasing out CFCs in 1993 and achieve a 50% reduction relative to 1986 consumption levels by 1998. Under this agreement, CFCs were the only ODSs addressed.
The London Amendment (1990) changed the ODS emission schedule by requiring the complete phaseout of CFCs, halons, and carbon tetrachloride by 2000 in developed countries, and by 2010 in developing countries. Methyl chloroform was also added to the list of controlled ODSs, with phaseout in developed countries targeted in 2005, and in 2015 for developing countries.
The Copenhagen Amendment (1992) significantly accelerated the phaseout of ODSs and incorporated an HCFC phaseout for developed countries, beginning in 2004. Under this agreement, CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform were targeted for complete phaseout in 1996 in developed countries. In addition, methyl bromide consumption of methyl bromide was capped at 1991 levels.
The Montreal Amendment (1997) included the phaseout of HCFCs in developing countries, as well as the phaseout of methyl bromide in developed and developing countries in 2005 and 2015, respectively.
The Beijing Amendment (1999) included tightened controls on the production and trade of HCFCs. Bromochloromethane was also added to the list of controlled substances with phaseout targeted for 2004.
At the 19th Meeting of the Parties in Montreal on September 17-21, 2007, the Parties agreed to more aggressively phase out HCFCs in both developed and developing countries. More information on this most recent action to strengthen the Montreal Protocol is found here.