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Substitutes in Precision Cleaning

Substitutes are reviewed on the basis of ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, toxicity, flammability, and exposure potential. Lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes are updated several times each year. A chronological list of SNAP updates is also available.

Note: SNAP Notices and Final Rules published in the Federal Register take precedence over all information on the web site.

Acceptable Substitutes for ODS in Precision Cleaning

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Comments
Aqueous cleaners CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform EPA is planning to issue effluent guidelines for this industry under the Clean Water Act.
Semi-aqueous cleaners CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform EPA is planning to issue effluent guidelines for this industry under the Clean Water Act.
Straight organic solvent cleaning (with terpenes, C5-C20 petroleum hydrocarbons, oxygenated organic solvents such as ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, etc.) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform OSHA standards must be met, if applicable.
Trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methylene chloride CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform OSHA and RCRA standards must be met. EPA issued Maximum Achievable Control Technology requirements under the Clean Air Act for vapor degreasing in November 1994.
Supercritical fluids, plasma cleaning, UV / Ozone cleaning CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform OSHA standards for ozone must be met.
HCFC-123 CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Has an acceptable exposure limit (AEL) of 30 ppm.
Volatile methyl siloxanes CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Approval is granted for the whole class of compounds.
Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform The OSHA set exposure limit is 200 ppm.
Hydrofluorether (HFE) 7100: C4F9OCH3 (methoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b None
HFE-7200 (C5F9OCH3) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform The Agency expects that any exposures will not exceed any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs).
Heptafluorocyclopentane CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b EPA expects users to adhere to an exposure limit of 123 ppm over an eight-hour time-weighted average, with a ceiling of 500 ppm.
HFC-365mfc CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b None
HFE-7000 (heptafluoropropyl methyl ether) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform EPA expects that the workplace environmental exposure will not exceed the workplace environmental exposure limit of 75 ppm and that users will observe the manufacturer's recommendations in MSDSs.
The Mini-Max Cleaner® CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform None
n-propyl bromide CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform

EPA recommends the use of personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles, flexible laminate protective gloves and chemical-resistant clothing.

EPA expects that all users of nPB would comply with any final Permissible Exposure Limit that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issues in the future under 42 U.S.C. 7610(a). nPB, also known as 1-bromopropane, is Number 106-94-5 in the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry.

Perfluorobutyl Iodide (PFBI)  CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof PFBI has an ODP of less than 0.005 and a 100-year GWP of less than 5. Its CAS Reg. No. is 423-39-2.

EPA recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 375ppm (8-hour time-weighted average) for PFBI.

Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute, particularly with respect to disposal. Prevent the solvent from entering waterways.

PFBI is currently defined as a volatile organic compound (VOC) under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)).
HFE-347pcf2 CFC-113, methyl chloroform, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, and blends thereof HFE-347pcf2 has a 100-yr GWP of 580. Its CAS Reg. No. is 406-78-0.

The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 50 ppm (8-hr TWA) for this substitute. EPA recommends a ceiling limit (maximum concentration) of 150 ppm for HFE-347pcf2.  

Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute, particularly with respect to proper ventilation and other industrial hygiene practices.
Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (Solstice™  1233zd(E)) All Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene has an ODP of approximately 0.00024 at temperate latitudes. It has a 100-year global warming potential of 4.7 to 7. Its Chemical Abstracts Service Registry number (CAS Reg. No.) is 102687-65-0.

The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 300 ppm over an 8-hour time-weighted average for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene.

Note that this substitute boils at room temperature. Therefore, EPA recommends using this substitute in equipment designed to minimize solvent losses, emissions and worker exposure. Examples of such equipment include containers with connected hoses and valves that allow for direct transfer of the solvent to cleaning equipment without opening of the storage container, and enclosed or low-emission cleaning equipment.

Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute.

Substitutes for ODS Subject to Use Conditions in Precision Cleaning

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Conditions or Restrictions Comments
HFC-4310mee CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted average workplace exposure standard and 400 ppm workplace exposure ceiling. None
Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 100 ppm standard for benzotrifluoride. The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluoride is based on the company-set acceptable exposure limit.
HCFC-225ca/cb CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Subject to the company-set exposure limit of 25 ppm for the -ca isomer. HCFC-225ca/cb is offered as an isomeric blend. The company-set workplace standard for the cb-isomer is higher--250ppm. The use of the less toxic cb-isomer in the blend suggests that the 25 ppm standard for the ca-isomer can be readily met.

Substitutes for ODS Subject to Narrowed Use Limits in Precision Cleaning

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Conditions or Restrictions Comments
Perfluorocarbons (C5F12, C6F12, C6F14, C7F16, C8F18, C5F11NO, C6F13NO, C7F15NO, and C8F16) CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable for high-performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. The principal environmental characteristic of concern for PFCs is that they have long atmospheric lifetimes and high global warming potentials. Although actual contributions to global warming depend upon the quantities of PFCs emitted, the effects are for practical purposes irreversible.

Users must observe this limitation on PFC acceptability by conducting a reasonable evaluation of other substitutes to determine that PFC use is necessary to meet performance or safety requirements. Documentation of this evaluation must be kept on file.

Perfluoropolyethers CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform Acceptable for high-performance, precision-engineered applications only where reasonable efforts have been made to ascertain that other alternatives are not technically feasible due to performance or safety requirements. PFPEs have similar global warming profiles to the PFCs, and the SNAP decision on PFPEs parallels that for PFCs.

Unacceptable Substitutes for ODS in Precision Cleaning

Substitute ODS Being Replaced Comments
Dibromomethane CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform High ODP; other alternatives exist.
HCFC-141b and its blends CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform High ODP; other alternatives exist.
Chlorobromomethane CFC-113, Methyl Chloroform, HCFC-141b High ODP; other alternatives exist.

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