Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
The Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning Program was created by the Arizona legislature in 1991. Recognizing that the amount of hazardous wastes being generated by Arizona businesses was increasing, the legislature enacted this regulatory program to reduce those wastes at the source and to avoid the construction of a hazardous waste incineration facility in the state. This multimedia legislation empowers Arizona facilities to use knowledge of their operations to reduce toxic substances at the source, minimize the generation of hazardous waste, and prevent the release of pollutants to the environment. Initially funded solely by the state's general and hazardous waste management funds, the program now also receives U.S. EPA Pollution Prevention grants, facilitating the program's development and success.
The P2 Planning Program requires all industrial facilities within a certain threshold of hazardous waste generation and toxic substance usage to perform a P2 analysis and file an annual P2 plan. These plans become standalone management tools, documenting the rigorous pollution prevention assessments performed. The plans record the toxic substances used as well as emissions and wastes generated by all facility operations. The plans then outline specific pollution prevention opportunities and performance goals within a suggested implementation schedule. The information in the plans is used to create a comprehensive database that is used for planning and tracking success.
A variety of resource tools are used on this multimedia project, which include technical assistance, partnerships, outreach, a data collection program, and innovation. The legislation created a pollution prevention technical assistance program to assist targeted facilities to reduce the amount and toxicity of hazardous waste that they generate or toxic substances that they use. The technical assistance program includes the following: the production of workshops, conferences, and handbooks; the establishment of a hazardous waste reduction clearinghouse; cooperation with university programs to develop hazardous waste reduction and toxic substances minimization curricula and training; on-site technical assistance visits; researching and recommending incentive programs for innovative hazardous waste management and toxic substance reduction; conducting a public education program to reduce emissions of ozone forming substances; and accelerate pollution prevention technical assistance efforts to avoid ozone violations.
A variety of resource tools are used in the multimedia P2 program, including technical assistance, partnerships, outreach, data collection and innovation.
A great deal of valuable technical expertise, advice, ideas, and support are provided by the Western Regional Pollution Prevention Network, the National Pollution Prevention Roundtable and its membership, the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute, and many state environmental programs' websites from across the country. Additional partners include: "Maquiladoras," international manufacturing operations with twin plants on either side of the international boundary; members of the aerospace, automotive, boating, electronics, manufacturing, utilities, health services, mining, and environmental industries; local government agencies; builders practicing "Green Building;" and military facilities.
The partnership was expanded across the border into Mexico and was further developed into the Arizona-Mexico International Green Organization (AMIGO) as an international extension of the Arizona Partnership for Pollution Prevention. AMIGO focused on maquiladoras which are international manufacturing operations with twin plants on either side of the international boundary. The purpose of AMIGO was to promote pollution prevention by facilitating partnerships and networks between facilities in Arizona and Mexico. It was subsequently funded as a separate program by EPA and is now administered by the Border Programs Unit in the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Southern Regional Office. A P2 planning database that tracked the status of P2 plans and annual reports was developed. The database also was able to record P2 reduction data by zip code, city, or statewide. Finally, the Arizona Pollution Prevention Leadership Enhancement (APPLE) Program also was created as a result of this project. Funded by an EPA Grant, the program provided P2 demonstration grants and recognition awards to qualifying industries.
This successful program reports 911 million pounds of pollution prevented by over 200 companies who had submitted plans to the state through 2002. In South Phoenix, the data reveal that from 1992 to 2002, using pollution prevention, facilities eliminated 163,360 pounds of particulates and fugitive emissions and prevented the generation of 7,234,588 pounds of wastes. The area facilities in the P2 program also were able to reduce the amount of wastewater by 2,612,157 pounds and conserve new water use by 24,102,000 pounds. The total amount of pollution prevented, i.e., pollution prevention across all environmental media, is 221 million pounds.
There were many innovations that resulted from the project. First, a voluntary pollution prevention partnership program, the Arizona Partnership for Pollution Prevention (P3), was created to further promote P2, to reduce hazardous waste by 5% per year, or 35,452 tons through 1996. The partnership was directed at the largest waste generators, representing 96 percent of the state total. The ADEQ tracked the hazardous waste generation to verify the program results and provided annual awards for the largest and most innovative reductions. The goal was met and exceeded prior to the due date.
Key Elements, Suggestions, and Challenges
At the beginning of the P2 planning program implementation, the regulated businesses were concerned about what would happen if there were violations or if the plans were not acceptable. Indeed, because P2 was a brand new concept to the state businesses, a number of the original P2 plans did not meet the program requirements and deficiency letters were mailed, but no fines were levied. Over time, a trusting relationship was formed between P2 Plan filers and ADEQ. This was a very positive and new development for the state agency. This new working relationship resulted in support and development of the Arizona Partnership for Pollution Prevention (P3) (noted previously), which was very positively received by industry. The partnership members developed more P2 knowledge and confidence and soon, industry representatives, rather than ADEQ, were giving P2 speeches at environmental conferences. This industry support for the P2 concept then spurred other businesses to look at what P2 could do for them.
The program's success is due in part to a growing awareness among the regulated community of the benefits that come from participating in the program. What began as a regulatory, compliance driven program has evolved to include incentives that encourage companies to implement P2 plans. Today ADEQ pro vides a 50 percent reduction in hazardous waste generation fees when a company has an approved P2 plan in place. From 1999 through 2001, the program has meant an average annual savings to filers of more than $260,000.
The P2 program manager recommends that organizing the database by waste classification rather than by chemical name would be more useful because of the difficulties in drawing connection between waste streams and products. The program manager also recommends encouraging the implementation of environmental management systems to facilities as their P2 programs mature. Lastly, in a state agency with a central core mission and diverse, multimedia capabilities, it is important to encourage pollution prevention concepts and awareness throughout the organization. P2 can play an extremely important role in achieving greater environmental protection in permitting and compliance cases and can contribute meaningfully to resolving other pressing issues that presently confront us.
More InformationEnvironmental Programs - ADEQ Pollution Prevention Program