Jump to main content.


Anodyne, Inc.

Photos/Multimedia

Anodyne site

Anodyne site at Sunshine Industrial Park

Additional Resources
Site Summary Profile
EPA ID: FLD981014368
Location: North Miami Beach, Miami-Dade County, FL
Lat/Long: 25.923180, -080.221530
Congressional District: 17
NPL Status: Proposed: 06/24/88; Final: 02/21/90
Affected Media: Ground water, Soil
Cleanup Status: Cleanup activities are underway.
Human Exposure Under Control: Yes
Groundwater Migration Under Control: No
Sitewide Ready for Anticipated Use: No
Site Reuse/Redevelopment: In continued use; several businesses operate on the site
Site Manager: Michael Taylor (taylor.michael@epa.gov)


Current Site Status

The Anodyne, Inc. site includes the area where an industrial facility operated for a variety of purposes from approximately 1960 until 1978. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990 because of contaminated ground water and soil resulting from facility operations. EPA and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) have investigated site conditions and taken steps to clean up the site in order to protect people and the environment from contamination. Site contamination does not currently threaten people living and working near the site. By conducting studies to identify the best way to clean up contaminated ground water and negotiating with the site’s potentially responsible parties (PRPs) to design and implement the site’s cleanup plan, EPA and FDEP continue to protect people and the environment from site contamination.

Site Location and Background

The 4-acre site is located in Sunshine State Industrial Park, an unincorporated part of Miami-Dade County, Florida, near North Miami Beach. The industrial park is located in a mixed residential, commercial and industrial area. The site borders the Palmetto Expressway to the north, Interstate 95 to the east, U.S. Route 441 and the Biscayne Canal to the south, and a residential development to the west. An additional residential development is located south of the site beyond the Biscayne Canal. Local residents include low-income and primarily Hispanic families.

The site overlies the Biscayne Aquifer, a shallow water table aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for Miami-Dade and Broward counties.

Between 1960 and 1978, Anodyne and other companies used the site for a variety of industrial processes. Consumer products produced at the facility included decorative trim, control panels, face plates and equipment dials. Some storage of process chemicals occurred in above-ground tanks enclosed in concrete block structures along the south side of the main facility building. EPA concluded that the facility discharged wastes via pipes through the building wall directly onto the ground outside. A 10-inch-diameter, 90-foot-deep well is also located near the south side of the building. The facility possibly used this well for waste disposal. The well is the likely source of the site’s deep aquifer ground water contamination. In 1990, EPA listed the site on the NPL.

Several commercial businesses continue to operate in the former Anodyne facility, including a packaged snack distribution center, a security firm office and a parking facility.

Top of page

Threats and Contaminants

Site investigations identified contamination in soil and ground water that could potentially harm people in the area. Soil and ground water contamination resulted from waste handling practices at the site. Contaminants of concern identified include trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene (also known as PCE or PERC) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). EPA learned that used solvents from anodizing tanks, which is the process of applying a thin aluminum coating to materials, drained outside onto the ground. The facility cleaned and prepared the metals for printing using trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. EPA identified two separate and distinct zones of contamination: Zone 1, a shallow zone of metals-contaminated ground water and soil; and Zone 2, a deep zone of ground water contaminated with VOCs.

In Zone 1, PRPs dug up contaminated soils thought to be contaminating ground water and sent them to a landfill or placed them back onto the site after cleanup. The level of cleanup allows for commercial and industrial land uses at the site. The cleanup does not allow for residential land uses, schools or daycare facilities. PRPs completed Zone 1 soil and ground water cleanup and no further work is expected.

In Zone 2, EPA uses monitoring wells to evaluate the spread of contaminated ground water. In the future, contaminated ground water from the site may impact public water system wells. EPA monitors the local public water treatment facility for contaminants of concern to ensure drinking water safety. Businesses and residents use the public water system and therefore do not encounter contaminated ground water. In addition, the South Florida Water Management District has listed the site and nearby surrounding area as a ground water delineation area. This means that drinking water wells must have the District’s approval before placement in the area.

Top of page

Investigation and Cleanup Responsibility / Oversight

PRPs led Zone 1 cleanup activities, with oversight provided by EPA and FDEP. EPA is conducting Zone 2’s cleanup activities in cooperation with FDEP and Miami-Dade County’s Department of Environmental Resources Management.

Top of page

Site Cleanup Plan

In 1993, EPA issued a cleanup plan (a Record of Decision, or ROD) for the site. The plan for Zone 1 included the following activities:

The plan for Zone 2 included the following activities:

In 2010, EPA issued an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) to modify cleanup standards for nickel contamination.

An EPA ROD Amendment to address the treatment of concentrated areas and monitored natural attenuation is under review.

Summaries of the site cleanup approach are also available online in key site cleanup documents, including the ROD and ESD.

Top of page

Cleanup Progress

Parties have taken several cleanup actions at the site. PRPs began Zone 1 cleanup in 2003 and completed it in 2005. Cleanup activities included digging up approximately 5,000 yards of soil, ground water sampling and backfilling dug-up areas with clean soil.

EPA began Zone 2 design studies in 2000 to evaluate changes in the location of contaminants in the site’s ground water. EPA installed additional ground water monitoring wells and collected ground water samples. EPA installed additional monitoring wells in 2004. These additional wells allowed for expanded tracking of movement of the site’s ground water contamination. EPA collected additional ground water samples from existing wells to further analyze and determine the level of contamination concentrations from previous data collected. EPA finalized a report evaluating the ground water sampling results in 2007.

Ground water monitoring in Zone 2 is ongoing. Movement of ground water contamination is relatively active due to ground water recharge and local area wellhead influence. EPA has an interagency agreement with the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) to assist with ground water cleanup at the site. EPA and USACE completed a pilot study to assess the treatability of contaminated ground water identified in the deep aquifer in 2010.

EPA does not expect that the pump-and-treat ground water cleanup method, which is the use of pumps to remove and clean up ground water, will effectively address ground water contamination. An alternative cleanup approach is under review. If EPA determines this alternative cleanup approach will be effective, EPA will issue a ROD Amendment.

Summaries of site cleanup activities are also available in the ESD online.

Top of page

Enforcement Activities

EPA negotiated legal agreements with the site PRP to investigate and clean up the site for Zone 1. The PRP continues to fund site cleanup, monitoring and oversight activities for Zone 1.

EPA was unable to identify any viable potentially responsible parties for the site for Zone 2. EPA is using federal funds for site cleanup activities for Zone 2.

The ROD online provides information on specific legal agreements for the site.

Top of page

Community Involvement

EPA has worked with the community and its state partner to develop a long-term cleanup plan for the site, reflecting the Agency’s commitment to safe, healthy communities and environmental protection. Community engagement and public outreach are core components of EPA program activities.

EPA has conducted a range of community involvement activities to solicit community input and to make sure the public remains informed about site activities throughout the cleanup process. Outreach efforts have included public notices, public meetings on cleanup activities, and providing ground water monitoring data.

Top of page

Future Work

EPA will issue a ROD Amendment once the Agency identifies an alternative approach for cleaning up remaining ground water contamination.

Top of page

Additional Information

EPA keeps additional site documents and information in a site information repository at the location below. EPA also posts site documents, when available, on EPA’s CERCLIS Site Profile page. For documents not available on the website, please contact the Region 4 Freedom of Information Office.

Site Repository

North Dade Regional Library
2455 NW 183 Street
Miami, FL  33056

Top of page


Local Navigation



Jump to main content.