EPA-Expo-Box (A Toolbox for Exposure Assessors)
Water and Sediment
Contaminated media to which people may be exposed include air, water and sediment, soil and dust, food, aquatic biota, and consumer products. Surface water can be contaminated by direct discharges (e.g., from industrial, commercial, agricultural, or residential sites) or indirect discharges (e.g., groundwater contaminants that have migrated to surface water; storm water runoff; settling of contaminants from the atmosphere). Pollutants in surface water can sink and contaminate sediments. Groundwater can become contaminated when pollutants in subsoil leach to groundwater. Contaminated surface water or groundwater might be used as a source of drinking water.
Exposure to contaminants in water can occur by direct ingestion (e.g., drinking water); indirect ingestion (e.g., consuming foods and drinks made with water); incidental ingestion (e.g., swallowing water while swimming); dermal contact (e.g., during showering or bathing, while swimming or wading in surface water); or inhalation (e.g., inhaling vapors during showering). Exposure to contaminants in sediment would likely occur through dermal contact (e.g., while wading or playing in water). The concentrations of contaminants in water or sediment at the point of exposure may differ from the concentration at the source as a result of fate and transport processes (e.g., dilution, biodegradation). Various tools are available for evaluating sources and releases of contaminants to water, fate and transport processes, and potential exposure concentrations. Exposure factors, calculation tools, and guidance for assessing exposure to contaminants in water are also provided.
|1: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont||http://www.epa.gov/region1/topics/index.html|
|2: New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico , U.S. Virgin Islands||http://www.epa.gov/region02/water/|
|3: Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, District of Columbia||http://www.epa.gov/reg3wapd/index.htm|
|4: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee||http://www.epa.gov/region4/water/|
|5: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Wisconsin||http://www.epa.gov/r5water/|
|6: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas||http://www.epa.gov/region6/water/|
|7: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska||http://www.epa.gov/region7/water/|
|8: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming||http://www.epa.gov/region8/water/|
|9: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, territories of Guam and American Samoa||http://www.epa.gov/region9/water/|
|10: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington||http://yosemite.epa.gov/R10/WATER.NSF/homepage/water|