Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.
While the Cement Manufacturing sector is exploring and beginning to implement less polluting means of producing cement, Portland cement remains the industry’s primary product and a key component in the making of concrete.
Portland cement is the generic term for a fine gray powder that binds sand and gravel into concrete. It is produced by combining exact proportions of limestone, clay, and sand, grinding them together, and then heating the mixture in a kiln to form an intermediate product called “clinker.” After cooling, clinker is ground with a small amount of gypsum into the Portland cement product.
Particulate matter (PM and PM-10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are the primary emissions from the manufacture of Portland cement.
The Cement Manufacturing sector is concentrated among a relatively small number of companies. Many U.S. cement plants are owned by or are subsidiaries of foreign companies. Together, 10 companies accounted for about 80 percent of total U.S. cement production in 2005. California, Texas, Pennsylvania, Florida, and Alabama are the five leading cement-producing states and accounted for about 48 percent of recent U.S. production.
You can find recent data and trends for this sector in the Cement Manufacturing chapter of the most recent Sector Performance Report.
The Cement Manufacturing chapter in the report, Energy Trends in Selected Manufacturing Sectors: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmentally Preferable Energy Outcomes (PDF) (11 pp, 300K About PDF), outlines the trends and opportunities in energy use for this sector.
- Trends: Cement Sector - Trends in Beneficial Use of Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials (PDF) (revised draft October 2008) (116 pp, 2.7MB, About PDF)
- EPA Office of Solid Waste: Standards for the Management of Cement Kiln Dust Waste
- EPA Air Toxics: Rule and Implementation Information for Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry
- EPA Alternative Control Techniques: NOx Emissions from Cement Manufacturing (PDF)
- U.S. Census Bureau: 1997 Economic Census, Cement Manufacturing
- Cement Sustainability Initiative: World Business Council for Sustainable Development
- CEMBUREAU—The European Cement Association
- EPA Industry Sector Notebook: Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete Industry (1995)