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Methyl Bromide Alternatives

Both chemical and non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide exist, and several pest control tools can manage the pests currently controlled with methyl bromide.  Research on alternatives continues and EPA continues to prioritize the registration of alternatives to methyl bromide.  The U.S. Department of Agriculture/Agricultural Research Service has also conducted research on alternatives to methyl bromide.

Some primary alternatives for the following sectors are as follows:

Use Category Alternatives Available Status of Registration Alternatives Under Development Possible Date of Registration
Commodities Propylene Oxide Registered Ethyl Formate Not registered
Phosphine Registered Ethylene Oxide Not registered
Sulfuryl Fluoride Registered Methyl Formate Not registered
Cucurbits 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered    
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Glyphosate Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Halosulfuron Registered    
Metam Sodium Registered    
Paraquat Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
Eggplant 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered    
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Halosulfuron Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
Napropamide Registered    
Trifluralin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Napropamide + Trifluralin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
Food Facilities Phosphine Registered Ethyl Formate Not registered
Sulfuryl Fluoride Registered Ethylene Oxide Not registered
    Methyl Formate Not registered
Forest Seedlings 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dazomet Registered    
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered    
Metam Sodium Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
Ham Sulfuryl Fluoride Registered    
Nurseries: Raspberries 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dazomet Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
Nurseries: Fruit and Nut Tree 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dazomet Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Pic + Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Dazomet Registered    
Nurseries: Roses 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dazomet Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin + Metam Sodium Registered    
Orchard Replant 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dazomet Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin + Metam Sodium Registered    
Ornamentals 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Dazomet Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered Potassium Tri-iodide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
Dazomet + Chloropicrin Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
Peppers Metam Sodium Registered Furfural Not registered
1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered    
Halosulfuron Registered    
Glyphosate Registered    
Paraquat Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
Post-Harvest Uses Phosphine Registered Ethyl Formate Not registered
Sulfuryl Fluoride* Registered Ethylene Oxide Not registered
    Methyl Formate Not registered
Strawberry 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Dazomet** Registered    
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered    
Metam Sodium Registered    
Terbacil Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin + Metam Sodium Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
Strawberry Nursery Chloropicrin Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Metam Sodium Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
    Sodium Azide Not registered
Tomato 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Furfural Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Pebulate No longer registered
Dazomet** Registered Propargyl Bromide Not registered
Dimethyl Disulfide Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Fosthiazate Registered    
Glyphosate Registered    
Metam Sodium Registered    
Paraquat Registered    
Halosulfuron-methyl Registered    
s-Metolachlor Registered    
Trifloxysulfuron-methyl Registered    
Rimsulfuron Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Metam Sodium Registered    
1,3-Dichloropropene + Chloropicrin Registered    
Turf (sod) 1,3-Dichloropropene Registered Dimethyl Disulfide Not registered
Chloropicrin Registered Sodium Azide Not registered
Furfural Registered    
Metam Sodium Registered    
Dazomet Registered    
Dazomet + Chloropicrin Registered    
Metam Sodium + Chloropicrin Registered    

*Research on-going to evaluate efficacy in controlling mites
**The registration for Dazomet is limited to California only.

In some situations involving small-scale production, there are non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide. For example, steam sterilization of soil is a viable alternative for the use of chemical fumigants in some soil types. In the post-harvest sectors, sanitation and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques are used to manage pest populations and extend the time between chemical fumigations. Pheromone traps, electrocution traps, and light traps are also used to monitor pest populations.

OTHER INFORMATION

Annual Methyl Bromide Alternatives Outreach (MBAO) Conference

Additional information about alternatives to methyl bromide as they relate to individual sectors can be found in the annual U.S. Nomination submission.  Between 1995 and 1997, EPA published Case Studies about alternatives to methyl bromide. For copies of these Case Studies, please call the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Hotline at 1-800-296-1996.


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