Key updates made to the COBRA model released in October 2012:

  1. COBRA now has a single emissions baseline for the year 2017 instead of 2010 and 2015.
  2. Benefits of avoided adult mortality are now estimated using Krewski et al. (2009) and Laden et al. (2006). Pope et al. (2002) is no longer used in COBRA.
  3. There are several changes in the set of health impact functions for the morbidity endpoints.
  4. COBRA now reports a high and a low health benefits estimate using two sets of assumptions about the sensitivity of adult mortality and non-fatal heart attacks to changes in ambient PM2.5 levels.
  5. Recent health incidence data has been added.
  6. The dollar values in COBRA have been updated from year 2006-$ to year 2010-$.
  7. COBRA users can choose between 3% and 7% discount rate to calculate present value of health benefits that occur beyond 2017.
  8. COBRA now uses 2017 population projections based on US Census of Population and Housing 2010 and economic forecasting models developed by Woods & Poole (2012).

For more information about the updated model and all of its assumptions, see the User Manual.