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EPA Radiation Guidance for CERCLA: Risk Assessment

Guidance (OSWER Directives) recommended by EPA Superfund Program

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Guidances:

"Radiation Risk Assessment At CERCLA Sites: Q & A" (44 pp, 2.23M) May 2014. Includes transmittal memo entitled "Distribution of OSWER Radiation Risk Assessment Q & A's Final Guidance" June 13, 2014.
OSWER Publication 9200.4-40.

This fact sheet provides an overview of current EPA guidance for risk assessment and related topics for radioactively contaminated CERCLA sites. It provides answers to several commonly asked questions regarding risk assessments at radioactively contaminated CERCLA sites. Also, it provides further guidance that dose assessments should only be conducted under CERCLA where necessary to demonstrate ARAR compliance, and that dose-based ARARs should be 12 mrem/yr or less to be considered protective. In addition it also provides guidance on how to comply with indoor radon standards. This fact sheet supersedes an earlier Q&A from December 1999.

Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Radionuclides
"Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator. Includes transmittal memo entitled: "Distribution of OSWER of Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund Electronic Calculator" (4 pp, 98K) February 7, 2002. OSWER Publication 9355.01-83A, NTIS Order Number (PB2002 963301)

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for radionuclides at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should generally be used for calculating radionuclide PRGs for residential, commercial/industrial, and agricultural land use exposures, tap water and fish ingestion exposures, and migration of radionuclides through the unsaturated zone. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Radiation Risk Assessment - Radiation Risk Assessment: Updates and Tools."

Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BPRG)
"Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BPRG)" electronic calculator. Includes transmittal memo entitled: "Distribution of Superfund Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BPRG) Electronic Calculator" (PDF) (4 pp, 509K) August 29, 2007. OSWER Publication 9355.0-114

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing preliminary remediation goals for radionuclides in buildings (BPRGs) at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BPRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should generally be used for calculating radionuclide BPRGs for buildings with either a residential or a commercial/industrial use. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities".

Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Outside Surfaces (SPRG)
"Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Outdoor Surfaces (SPRG)" electronic calculator. Includes transmittal memo entitled: "Distribution of Superfund Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Outdoor Surfaces (SPRG) Electronic Calculator" (PDF) (3 pp, 853K) January 16, 2009. OSWER Publication 9355.5-26

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing preliminary remediation goals for radionuclides in outside hard surfaces (SPRGs) at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Outside Surfaces (SPRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should generally be used for calculating radionuclide SPRGs for outside hard surfaces (e.g., building slabs, outside building walls, sidewalks and roads) with either a residential or a commercial/industrial use. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities".

Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides
Two Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides documents entitled: "Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: User's Guide" October 2000, OSWER No. 9355.4-16A, NTIS Order Number (PB2000 963307), and "Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: Technical Background Document" October 2000, OSWER 9355.4-16, NTIS Order Number (PB2000 963306).

These guidance documents provide information on soil screening for radionuclides when setting remediation goals at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "Soil Screening Guidance for Radionuclides: User's Guide" presents standardized exposure parameters and equations for calculating radionuclide preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for residential land use exposures. In addition, an electronic version of these risk assessment and unsaturated zone equations has been developed. These equations have been superceded by the "Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator above.

ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations (DCCs) for Radionuclides
"Radionuclide ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations (DCCs) for Superfund" electronic calculator. Includes transmittal memo entitled: "Distribution of OSWER of Radionuclide ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations (DCCs) for Superfund Electronic Calculator" (4 pp, 665 K) January 28, 2004. OSWER Publication 9355.0-86A, NTIS Order Number (PB 2004 102517)

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing ARAR dose compliance concentrations (DCCs) for radionuclides at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "Radionuclide ARAR Dose Compliance Concentration (DCCs) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should be used for calculating radionuclide DCCs for residential, commercial/industrial, and agricultural land use exposures, tap water and fish ingestion exposures. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Radiation Risk Assessment - Radiation Risk Assessment: Updates and Tools."

ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BDCC)
"ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BDCC)" electronic calculator.
Includes transmittal memo entitled: Distribution of Superfund ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BDCC) and ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Surfaces (SDCC) Electronic Calculator (PDF) (3 pp, 959K) January 4, 2010. OSWER Publication 9355.5-30.

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing ARAR dose compliance concentrations for radionuclides in buildings (BDCCs) at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BDCC) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should generally be used for calculating radionuclide BDCCs for outside hard surfaces (e.g., building slabs, outside building walls, sidewalks and roads) with either a residential or a commercial/industrial use. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities".

ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Surfaces (SDCC)
"ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (SDCC) " electronic calculator.
Includes transmittal memo entitled: Distribution of Superfund ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BDCC) and ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Surfaces (SDCC) Electronic Calculator (PDF) (3 pp, 959K) January 4, 2010. OSWER Publication 9355.5-30.

This electronic calculator provides information on establishing ARAR dose compliance concentrations for radionuclides in outside hard surfaces (SDCCs) at CERCLA sites with radioactive contamination. The "ARAR Dose Compliance Concentrations Goals for Radionuclides in Surfaces (SDCC) for Superfund" electronic calculator presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should generally be used for calculating radionuclide SDCCs for outside hard surfaces (e.g., building slabs, outside building walls, sidewalks and roads) with either a residential or a commercial/industrial use. For relevant training, see the internet-based course "Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities".

Radiation Risk Assessment Training
"Radiation Risk Assessment - Radiation Risk Assessment: Updates and Tools" archived internet-based training course, held May 15, 2007. Note that this training is not a guidance.

This internet-based training was developed collaboratively by EPA with the Radionuclides Team of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), a state-led coalition working together with industry and stakeholders to achieve regulatory acceptance of environmental technologies. This training clarifies the variations between the dose approach used at some sites and EPA's risk-based approach. The focus of Module 3 and 4 of the training is on EPA's radiation assessment tools for Superfund sites, "Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund" and the "Radionuclide ARAR Dose Compliance Concentration (DCCs) for Superfund" electronic calculators, which can facilitate better decision making for accelerated cleanups.

Radiation Decontamination and Decommissioning Training
"Decontamination and Decommissioning of Radiologically-Contaminated Facilities" archived Internet-based training course, held April 3, 2008.
Note that this training is not a guidance.

This Internet-based training was developed collaboratively by EPA with the Radionuclides Team of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC), a state-led coalition working together with industry and stakeholders to achieve regulatory acceptance of environmental technologies. The focus of Module 3 of the training is on EPA's radiation assessment tool for decontamination and decommissioning types of activities at Superfund sites, "Preliminary Remediation Goals for Radionuclides in Buildings (BPRG)" electronic calculator, which can facilitate better decision making for accelerated cleanups.

Chapter 10, "Radiation Risk Assessment Guidance" (37 pp, 1M) of the "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part A" December, 1989.
OSWER Publication EPA/540/1-89/002, NTIS Order Number (PB90 273830).

This chapter of RAGS Part A covers data collection and evaluation, exposure and dose assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization for sites contaminated with radioactive substances. Some of the guidance in this chapter has been updated in more recent OSWER directives (e.g., 9200.4-18 and 9200.4-31P) listed above.

Chapter 4, "Risk-based PRGs for Radioactive Contaminants," (10 pp, 1.9M) of "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part B" (RAGS Part B), December 1991.
OSWER Publication EPA/540/R-92/003, NTIS Order Number (PB92 963333).

This chapter of RAGS Part B presents standardized exposure parameters and equations that should be used for calculating radionuclide preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) for residential and commercial/industrial land use exposures. The guidance in this chapter for PRGs has been updated in more recent OSWER directives (e.g., 9355.01-83A) and the listed "Radionuclide Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs) for Superfund" electronic calculator above.

Appendix D, "Radiation Remediation Technologies," (9 pp, 1.1M) of "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) Part C", October 1991.
OSWER Publication 9285.7-01C, NTIS Order Number (PB 92 963 334).

This appendix to RAGS Part C provides guidance on using risk information to evaluate and select remediation technologies for sites with radioactive substances.

Chapter 5, "Standards, Advisories, and Guidance for the Management of Radioactive Waste," of "CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Part II. Clean Air Act and Other Environmental Statutes and State Requirements", August1989
OSWER Publication EPA540/G-89/009, NTIS Order Number (PB90 148 461), 176p.

This chapter provides guidance on the potential applicability or relevance and appropriateness of standards for management of mill tailings and on other radiation standards that may be used as ARARs for CERCLA actions. Some of the guidance in this chapter has been updated in more recent OSWER directives (e.g., 9200.4-18, 9200.4-25, and 9200.4-31P) listed above.

Superfund Risk Assessment

This website contains a number of guidances and selected other reports on risk assessments which are used frequently by Superfund Remedial Project Managers. Although these documents do not focus on radioactive contaminants, decisionmakers at radioactively contaminated sites should find them useful. This is because at CERCLA sites, EPA radiological contaminants are addressed in a manner consistent with non-radiological (chemical) contaminants, except to account for the technical differences between radionuclides and chemicals.

 

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