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Sites in Reuse in Indiana

Columbus Old Municipal Landfill #1

The 19-acre Columbus Old Municipal Landfill #1 (OCL) Superfund site is located in Columbus, Indiana. From 1938 until 1966, the City of Columbus operated the site as an unpermitted municipal landfill. The unlined landfill accepted household wastes as well as materials from some industrial sources. The landfill stored about 500,000 cubic yards of waste material before operations ended. Waste disposal in the unlined landfill resulted in contamination of ground water, soils and sediments. In 1986, EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). Following site investigations which found that the conditions at the landfill met health-based and environmental quality-based guidelines, EPA selected a cleanup plan in 1992. The cleanup plan required installation of a minimum of two additional ground water monitoring wells and ground water monitoring for a minimum of five more years. The City of Columbus began planning a partial relocation of State Highway 46 into downtown Columbus that included a road across the landfill and a new bridge across the river next to the site. To make sure that the construction would not cause further contamination at the site, EPA selected a contingent remedy to be implemented when the road construction began. This contingent remedy included installation of fencing with warning signs, landfill cover inspection and maintenance, installation of additional ground water monitoring wells, ground water monitoring, and restrictions on land and water use at the site. The site’s potentially responsible parties (PRPs) implemented the contingent remedy under the oversight of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management. The City of Columbus completed the road and bridge project in 1999.
Updated 2/2013

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Conrail Rail Yard (Elkhart)

The 2,500-acre Conrail Rail Yard Superfund site is located in Elkhart, Indiana. The site includes a rail yard, the Osceola Dragway drag strip, and other light industrial and residential properties. In 1956, the Rail Yard Area (675 acres) began operating as part of the New York Central Railroad. Operations continued under a subsidiary of the Penn Central Transportation Company until 1976. In 1976, Conrail took over the rail yard’s functions. In 1999, Norfolk Corporation began operations of the rail yard. Past activities including the puncturing of a railcar and spills of chemicals onsite resulted in contaminated ground water. Numerous citizens complained about oil discharging from the site. In 1986, EPA identified chemicals in ground water near the site. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Cleanup activities have included providing affected residents with an alternate drinking water source, containing and monitoring contaminated ground water, and sampling for chemical vapors in residences. Where sampling identified chemical vapors in homes, Conrail installed basement-venting units. Norfolk Southern Corporation continues to operate the rail yard at the site. The rail yard serves as a classification distribution yard for freight cars. Rail car repair, engine cleaning and diesel refueling facilities are also located at the yard. The Osceola Dragway continues to operate as a commercial drag racing facility. The other areas impacted by chemicals include several light industrial properties and several residential areas.
Updated 2/2014

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Continental Steel Corp.

From 1914 to 1986, the Continental Steel Corp. Superfund site was an active steel manufacturing facility that made wire, nails and rods from scrap metal. The plant’s steel manufacturing operations included the use, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials. In 1986, Continental Steel went bankrupt, leaving its 183-acre property in Kokomo, Indiana, contaminated with solvents, PCBs and lead. In 1989, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List. As cleanup began, EPA, the state, the community and local developers started working to return portions of the site to productive use. Soon thereafter, a local florist began using an on-site warehouse and a construction company purchased a portion of the property to store construction equipment. In 2000, students and faculty at Indiana University began helping the City transform the site into a green space with a soccer field, a hiking trail, an amphitheater and decorative park benches. Also, EPA worked with the community to evaluate reuse opportunities in 2001. Part of the cleanup effort allowed the City of Kokomo to move forward with a stormwater project, which uses the on-site quarry as a stormwater retention/detention basin. In 2009, the site received $5.9 million in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding to support cleanup actions related to the ground water and slag processing area. These funds expedited cleanup efforts and the ground water extraction system began operations in September 2011. Reuse efforts at the site continue. In 2006, representatives from Indiana’s Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) and EPA met with Congressman Chocola and the Mayor of Kokomo to announce a $1 million redevelopment grant. The Community-based Redevelopment Plan presented at this event called for retail space, as well as soccer fields, softball diamonds and other recreational facilities on the site. Stakeholders expect to complete the most recent reuse effort, a 60-acre, 30-field Kokomo Soccer Club complex, including parking lots and a walking path, by the spring of 2013. The City of Kokomo operates a city wastewater treatment plant at the site.
Updated 2/2013

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Douglass Road/Uniroyal, Inc., Landfill

The 16-acre Douglass Road/Uniroyal, Inc. Landfill Superfund site is located in Mishawaka, Indiana. Uniroyal, Inc. operated an unlined landfill on site between 1954 and 1979 and accepted wastes including solvents, ash and rubber. These disposal practices contaminated the ground water under the site. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Uniroyal, Inc. filed for bankruptcy in 1991 and EPA funded remaining cleanup efforts. The remedy split cleanup into three phases: connecting residents to municipal water supplies, construction of a landfill cap and installation of a ground water extraction and treatment system. Working with local citizens, EPA and the local government successfully designed, built and operated a water filtration buffer system for the site. Construction reached completion in 2000. Since then, the city has built an on-site infiltration basin for the Douglas Road highway expansion project, which began in 2001. The state assumed responsibility for operation of the ground water extraction and treatment system and constructed a wetlands treatment system in 2011.
Updated 10/2013

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Galen Myers Dump/Drum Salvage
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The 5-acre Galen Myers Dump/Drum Salvage Superfund site is located in St. Joseph County, Indiana. From 1970 to 1983, the dump accepted 55-gallon steel drums. The collected drums were emptied by spilling the contents on the ground and later resold as trash containers. The St. Joseph County Health Department contacted EPA to assess the site after receiving complaints from a nearby resident. Working with the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM), EPA determined that dumping had contaminated surface soils and ground water at the site. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. EPA and the IDEM removed drums, flammable materials and contaminated soils. The agencies also provided alternative water supplies to about 180 residential homes affected by the contamination. Ground water monitoring continues and the agencies plan to install additional monitoring wells in October 2013. In August 2005, Mr. Doug Whittaker purchased the site property and constructed a single-family residence and two unattached sheds to store landscaping equipment.
Updated 10/2013

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Jacobsville Neighborhood Soil Contamination Green Infrastructure
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The 4.5 square mile Jacobsville Neighborhood Soil Contamination Superfund site is located in a mixed use area in Evansville, Indiana. The site includes commercial businesses, manufacturing facilities, hospitals, schools and residences. However, the cleanup focused on residential properties. Several manufacturing companies operated at the site beginning in the 1880s. Windborne particulates from manufacturing operations resulted in widespread contamination throughout the community. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2004 and issued cleanup plans for the site in 2008 and 2009. Cleanup activities include removal of contaminated soil, backfilling with clean soil and restoration of residential properties. In 2009, the site received almost $6.6 million in American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding for the cleanup and restoration work at about 250 homes on the site. This funding started the first round of a long-term cleanup. By October 2010, cleanup workers had cleaned up 263 homes, and as of October 2012, that number had climbed to over 750. The cleanup of two vacant lots in the Jacobsville neighborhood allowed a local non-profit organization, ECHO Housing Corporation, to receive grant money to construct a 26-unit residential building for homeless and disabled military veterans. ECHO Housing Corporation began development on the cleaned properties in July 2010 and completed construction in mid-2011. Residents moved into the building during November 2011. The cleanup effort is ahead of schedule and under budget, and has not displaced any residents during the work. EPA is also working with several local initiatives and supporting on-site community gardens.
Updated 2/2013

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Main Street Well Field Green Infrastructure
Site photo

The 48-acre Main Street Well Field Superfund site in Elkhart, Indiana includes a 15-well municipal well field. The site is the largest of three well fields owned by the City of Elkhart and supplies the majority of drinking water for city residents. In 1983, EPA identified ground water contamination a National Ground Water Supply Survey. The same year, EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). Under EPA oversight, the site’s potentially responsible parties (PRPs) installed a ground water extraction system and an air stripper system at the site in 1987. The PRPs also constructed a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system in 1995. The SVE system removed about 2,300 pounds of contamination before achieving cleanup goals in 2000. In 2001, the city added biking, jogging and walking trails to the site for use by the general public. Subsequently, the City of Elkhart enhanced the western portion of the site by constructing the Wellfield Botanic Gardens by adding flower gardens, fish ponds and artwork. The Wellfield Botanic Gardens is an environmental project that establishes a buffer zone between land and water using native plants while providing a natural habitat to ducks, geese, birds and other wildlife. In 2006, several of the PRPs declared bankruptcy. The City of Elkhart continues ground water treatment and monitoring to ensure continued delivery of safe drinking water to local residents.
Updated 2/2013

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Neal's Dump (Spencer)

The 1-acre Neal's Dump (Spencer) Superfund site is located approximately four miles southwest of Spencer, Indiana. From 1966 until 1971, the site operated as a disposal area for industrial wastes, including electrical capacitors and capacitor parts as well as contaminated rags and sawdust. Disposal activities resulted in the contamination of soil and ground water at the site. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. The site’s potentially responsible party (PRP) completed cleanup activities to residential standards under EPA’s oversight. Cleanup activities included the removal of 7,250 tons of contaminated materials and 2,430 contaminated capacitors and disposal of these materials at an off-site facility. The PRP backfilled and reseeded the excavated areas. In 1999, EPA deleted the site from the NPL. The PRP completed cleanup activities at the site in 2003. A portion of the site includes the backyard of a private residence, which remains in continued use.
Updated 2/2013

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Poer Farm

The 5-acre Poer Farm Superfund site is located in a rural area about 3 miles north of Wilkinson, Indiana. The site contains a collapsed house and barn. Agricultural land use surrounds the site. From 1973 until 1983, site owners stored 275 drums of solvents and paint resins at the site. Site investigations identified leaking drums at the site. Investigations also found damaged vegetation in areas where drums had leaked. EPA analyzed the drums and surrounding soils and determined that the leaking drums had resulted in soil contamination. EPA proposed the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. Before a final NPL listing, EPA removed all waste and soil from the drum storage areas on the site as part of an emergency removal action. EPA disposed of contaminated materials at off-site facilities. EPA finalized the site on the NPL in 1984. Following the removal action, EPA selected a no further action cleanup plan for the site and deleted the site from the NPL in 1991. A 7-acre portion of the site has returned to agricultural use to produce hay for livestock.
Updated 2/2013

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Prestolite Battery Division
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The 18-acre Prestolite Battery Division Superfund site in Knox County, Indiana, operated as a battery manufacturing facility from 1945 to 1985. During this time, site operators disposed of lead-contaminated sludge and wastewater into a sewer system. In additional to improper waste handling practices and accidental spills on site, the sewer system leaked wastewater, resulting in contamination of air, soil, surface water and ground water. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. The site’s potentially responsible party (PRP) conducted a removal action in 1993 under EPA oversight, which addressed soil contamination. In 1994, EPA selected monitored natural attenuation to address ground water contamination. The PRP began ground water monitoring following the installation of ground water monitoring wells. In 1996, EPA entered into a Prospective Purchaser Agreement (PPA) with a local real estate developer. The PPA resulted in commercial redevelopment at the site, spurred by the availability of infrastructure next to the site and the site’s location along a high-traffic roadway. Businesses began to open in 2001. Today, commercial businesses at the site include a home improvement center, restaurants, banks, hotels and other commercial businesses.
Updated 2/2013

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Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Indianapolis Plant) Alternative Energy
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The 120-acre Reilly Tar & Chemical Corp. (Indianapolis Plant) Superfund site is located in Indianapolis, Indiana. The site has operated as a specialty chemicals production facility since the early 1950s. Until 1972, a coal-tar refining and wood treatment facility that used creosote also operated at the site. Site operators used a trench, a landfill and several pits on site to dispose of wastes generated from operations. A lime pond received boiler cooling water. Waste handling practices resulted in ground water and soil contamination. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. A ground water extraction system, constructed in 1994, has contained ground water contamination to the site area. The system extracts contaminated ground water and sends it to the local wastewater treatment plant. The site’s potentially responsible party (PRP) has completed cleanup activities under EPA and Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) oversight. In 1997, the PRP addressed four on-site areas of soil contamination by removing and treating the soil. The PRP also addressed contamination in a fifth area by solidifying the contaminated material and placing a soil cover over the solidified material. In 1999, the PRP completed cleanup on the wood treatment and storage area of the site. Cleanup included placement of a permeable cover over the area. A soil vapor treatment system operated at the site until 2005. Fencing surrounds the site. Ground water monitoring and chemical production operations are ongoing.  Developer Hanwha Q Cells constructed a 10.8 megawatt solar energy generation facility over the remedy covers on the southern 45 acres of the site. The Maywood Solar Farm is the first utility scale solar farm to be constructed on a Superfund site in Region 5. The facility began operation in April 2014.
Updated 4/2014

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Southside Sanitary Landfill Alternative Energy
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Once considered a hazard to human health and the environment, the 324-acre Southside Sanitary Landfill Superfund site in Indianapolis, Indiana, now provides alternative energy production and green space for the community in addition to a safely operating landfill. Landfill operations began at the site in 1971. In 1984, sampling identified ground water contamination at the site. The discovery prompted landfill owners to construct an underground cut-off wall and a leachate collection system at the site. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. EPA required the owners of the landfill to take measures to prevent further migration of the chemicals and to collect the chemicals and treat them. Landfill owners installed a ground water monitoring well network; made cover and grading upgrades; and implemented operating, closure and post-closure procedures. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in 1997. Crossroads Greenhouses, one of the largest methane-powered greenhouses in the United States, has pulled more the 2.2 million cubic feet of methane gas each day from the site since 1998. Decomposing waste at the site provides all of the energy used in the 6.5-acre greenhouse. Landfill gas recovery wells and an intricate pipeline system collect and transport methane gas from the site to the neighboring greenhouse. In addition, the Rolls Royce Allison Aircraft Engine Plant began obtaining methane gas from the site’s landfill in 1998. Because methane burns much more cleanly than other fuels, the use of this energy source has reduced nitrogen oxide emissions from the plant. In 1999, a nine-hole golf course opened on the site. In 2003, the landfill donated land on the site for use by the Indianapolis School Board for outside environmental education. Local school children tour the site as part of their curriculum on landfill science. The site achieved the Site-Wide Ready for Anticipated Use (SWRAU) designation in 2011.
Updated 2/2013

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Whiteford Sales and Service Inc./Nationalease Green Infrastructure

The 11-acre Whiteford Sales and Service, Inc./Nationalease Superfund site is located in South Bend, Indiana. The site operated from 1967 to 1983 as a truck washing and degreasing facility. During these years, waste water discharged into three dry wells on site, resulting in the contamination of area soil and ground water. In 1980, St. Joseph County purchased the site for use in the planned realignment of the adjacent street and construction of an overpass. In 1983, the county used 200,000 cubic yards of soil from the site to build the new overpass. Engineers soon discovered the three dry wells and contaminated soil. A 1987 consent decree required that the potentially responsible party (PRP) remove and properly dispose of the sludge and surrounding contaminated soil from the three dry wells. The PRP completed the removal of sludge and contaminated soil in July 1988, disposing 210 cubic yards of contaminated material at an off-site facility. In 1990, EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). In 1995, EPA issued a Record of Decision (ROD) calling for “No Further Action” at the site. EPA chose the "No Further Action" remedy because an on-site investigation indicated that the site did not pose unacceptable risks to human health or the environment. The PRP had cleaned up the majority of the contamination during the removal action in 1988. EPA deleted the site from the NPL in September 1996. Today, the property serves as a stormwater retention basin.
Updated 2/2013

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