112(n) - Studies: Utilities, Coke Ovens, POTWs, Mercury, Hydrogen Sulfide
(n) Other provisions: Requires that the EPA perform studies concerning HAP emissions and control technologies from electric utility steam-generating units, coke oven production, and publicly-owned treatment works. This includes a study of mercury , associated emissions, health and environmental effects, and control technologies for mercury. Additionally, the EPA must assess the public health hazards associated with emissions of hydrogen sulfide from oil and gas extraction, and emissions of hydrofluoric acid in areas that do not have comprehensive health and safety regulations addressing hydrofluoric acid. The Hydrogen Flouride report was issued by the Chemical Emergency Preparedness and Prevention Office (CEPPO) in September 1993. The report number is EPA 550-R-93-001. "Hydrogen Flouride Study: Report to Congress. Order from NTIS . NTIS order number is PB 94-121308. For information about the mercury study contact Chuck French (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The full text of CAA Section 112(n) follows:
(n)Other provisions.- (1) Electric utility steam generating units.- (A) The Administrator shall perform a study of the hazards to public health reasonably anticipated to occur as a result of emissions by electric utility steam generating units of pollutants listed under subsection (b) after imposition of the requirements of this Act. The Administrator shall report the results of this study to the Congress within 3 years after the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The Administrator shall develop and describe in the Administrator's report to Congress alternative control strategies for emissions which may warrant regulation under this section. The Administrator shall regulate electric utility steam generating units under this section, if the Administrator finds such regulation is appropriate and necessary after considering the results of the study required by this subparagraph. (B) The Administrator shall conduct, and transmit to the Congress not later than 4 years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a study of mercury emissions from electric utility steam generating units, mu-nicipal waste combustion units, and other sources, including area sources. Such study shall consider the rate and mass of such emissions, the health and environmental effects of such emissions, technologies which are available to control such emissions, and the costs of such technolo- gies. (C) The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences shall conduct, and transmit to the Congress not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a study to determine the threshold level of mercury exposure below which adverse human health effects are not expected to occur. Such study shall include a threshold for mercury concentrations in the tissue of fish which may be consumed (including consumption by sensitive populations) without adverse effects to public health. (2) Coke oven production technology study.- (A) The Secretary of the Department of Energy and the Administrator shall jointly undertake a 6-year study to assess coke oven production emission control technologies and to assist in the development and commercialization of technically practicable and economically viable control technologies which have the potential to significantly reduce emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coke oven production facilities. In identifying control technologies, the Secretary and the Administrator shall consider the range of existing coke oven operations and battery design and the availability of sources of materials for such coke ovens as well as alternatives to existing coke oven production design. (B) The Secretary and the Administrator are authorized to enter into agreements with persons who propose to develop, install and operate coke production emission control technologies which have the potential for signifi- cant emissions reductions of hazardous air pollutants provided that Federal funds shall not exceed 50 per centum of the cost of any project assisted pursuant to this paragraph. (C) The Secretary shall prepare annual reports to Congress on the status of the research program and at the completion of the study shall make recommendations to the Administrator identifying practicable and economically viable control technologies for coke oven production facilities to reduce residual risks remaining after implementation of the standard under subsection (d). (D) There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1992 through 1997 to carry out the program authorized by this paragraph. (3) Publicly owned treatment works.- The Administrator may conduct, in cooperation with the owners and operators of pub- licly owned treatment works, studies to characterize emissions of hazardous air pollutants emitted by such facilities, to identify industrial, commercial and residential discharges that contribute to such emissions and to demonstrate control measures for such emissions. When promulgating any standard under this section applicable to publicly owned treatment works, the Administrator may provide for control measures that include pretreatment of discharges causing emissions of hazardous air pollutants and process or product substitutions or limitations that may be effective in reducing such emissions. The Adminis- trator may prescribe uniform sampling, modeling and risk assessment methods for use in implementing this subsection. (4) Oil and gas wells; pipeline facilities.- (A) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a), emissions from any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment) and emissions from any pipeline compressor or pump station shall not be aggregated with emissions from other similar units, whether or not such units are in a contiguous area or under common control, to determine whether such units or stations are major sources, and in the case of any oil or gas exploration or production well (with its associated equipment), such emissions shall not be aggregated for any purpose under this section. (B) The Administrator shall not list oil and gas production wells (with its associated equipment) as an area source category under subsection (c), except that the Administrator may establish an area source category for oil and gas production wells located in any metropolitan statistical area or consolidated metropolitan statistical area with a population in excess of 1 million, if the Administrator determines that emissions of hazardous air pollutants from such wells present more than a negligible risk of adverse effects to public health. (5) Hydrogen sulfide.- The Administrator is directed to assess the hazards to public health and the environment resulting from the emission of hydrogen sulfide associated with the extraction of oil and natural gas resources. To the extent practicable, the assessment shall build upon and not duplicate work conducted for an assessment pursuant to section 8002(m) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act and shall reflect consultation with the States. The assessment shall include a review of existing State and industry control standards, techniques and enforcement. The Administrator shall report to the Congress within 24 months after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 with the findings of such assessment, together with any recommendations, and shall, as appropriate, develop and implement a control strategy for emissions of hydrogen sulfide to protect human health and the environment, based on the findings of such assessment, using authorities under this Act including sections 111 and this section. (6) Hydrofluoric acid.- Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the Administrator shall, for those regions of the country which do not have comprehensive health and safety regulations with respect to hydrofluoric acid, complete a study of the potential hazards of hydrofluoric acid and the uses of hydrofluoric acid in industrial and commercial applications to public health and the environment considering a range of events including worst- case accidental releases and shall make recommendations to the Congress for the reduction of such hazards, if appropriate. (7) RCRA facilities.- In the case of any category or subcategory of sources the air emissions of which are regulated under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Administrator shall take into account any regulations of such emissions which are promulgated under such subtitle and shall, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent with the provisions of this section, ensure that the requirements of such subtitle and this section are consistent.