Hazard Summary-Created in April 1992; Revised in January 2000
Limited exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl occurs since it is no longer produced
commercially. Acute (short-term) inhalation exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl
produces headaches, lethargy, cyanosis, urinary burning, and hematuria
(the presence of blood in urine) in humans. 4-Aminobiphenyl is a known
human bladder carcinogen and animal studies have reported an increase
in bladder and liver tumors from oral exposure. EPA has not classified
4-aminobiphenyl for potential carcinogenicity; however, the International
Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified 4-aminobiphenyl as
a Group 1 carcinogen, the agent is carcinogenic to humans.
- 4-Aminobiphenyl is no longer manufactured commercially; it was used as a rubber antioxidant and a dye intermediate in the past. (3,5,6)
Sources and Potential Exposure
- Currently, individuals are unlikely to be exposed to 4-aminobiphenyl in the workplace because it is no longer manufactured commercially. However, past exposure may have occurred in the workplace. (1,2)
- 4-Aminobiphenyl is found in tobacco smoke; smokers have been found to have higher levels of the breakdown products of 4-aminobiphenyl in their blood than nonsmokers. (1)
Assessing Personal Exposure
- A method exists to measure the breakdown products of 4-aminobiphenyl in the blood. However, this is a newly developed research method that is not currently available for routine use. (1)
Health Hazard InformationAcute Effects:
- Acute inhalation exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl produces headaches, lethargy, cyanosis, urinary burning, and hematuria (the presence of blood in urine) in humans. (3)
- Tests involving acute exposure of rats, mice, and rabbits have demonstrated 4-aminobiphenyl to have moderate to high acute toxicity from ingestion. (7)
- No information is available on the chronic (long-term) effects of 4-aminobiphenyl in humans or animals.
- EPA has not established a Reference Concentration (RfC) or a Reference Dose (RfD) for 4-aminobiphenyl.
- 4-Aminobiphenyl has been shown to cross the placenta in humans and has been detected in fetal blood. No other information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of 4-aminobiphenyl in humans or animals. (1)
- 4-Aminobiphenyl is a known human bladder carcinogen, based on epidemiological studies of occupationally exposed workers who reported a high incidence of bladder cancer. (1,2-5)
- 4-Aminobiphenyl is carcinogenic in mice, rats, rabbits, and dogs. Bladder and liver tumors have been observed in mice, and bladder tumors have also been observed in rabbits and dogs following oral administration. Mammary gland and intestinal tumors have been reported in rats exposed by subcutaneous injection. (1,2,4,5)
- EPA has not classified 4-aminobiphenyl for potential carcinogenicity.
- IARC has classified 4-aminobiphenyl as a Group 1 carcinogen; i.e., there is sufficient evidence from epidemiological studies to support a causal association between the exposure and cancer. (4)
- The chemical formula for 4-aminobiphenyl is C12H11N, and its molecular weight is 169.22 g/mol. (2,6)
- 4-Aminobiphenyl is a yellowish-brown crystalline solid and is slightly soluble in cold water and very soluble in hot water. (3,6)
- The odor threshold for 4-aminobiphenyl has not been established.
- The log octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kow) for 4-aminobiphenyl is 2.80. (1)
Note: There are very few health numbers or regulatory/advisory numbers for 4-aminobiphenyl; thus a graph has not been prepared for this compound. The health values cited in this factsheet were obtained in December 1999.
To convert concentrations in air (at 25°C) from ppm to mg/m3: mg/m3 = (ppm) × (molecular weight of the compound)/(24.45). For 4-aminobiphenyl: 1 ppm = 6.92 mg/m3.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Volume 1. World Health Organization, Lyon. 1972.
- M. Sittig. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 2nd ed. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ. 1985.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans: Chemicals, Industrial Processes and Industries Associated with Cancer in Humans. IARC Monographs. Volumes 1 to 29. Supplement 4. World Health Organization, Lyon. 1982.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Newest Report on Carcinogens, 1998 Summary. Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, 1998.
- The Merck Index. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals. 11th ed. Ed. S. Budavari. Merck and Co. Inc., Rahway, NJ. 1989.
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS, online database). National Toxicology Information Program, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. 1993.