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Reports and Journal Articles

The Air Quality Modeling Group (AQMG) conducts modeling analyses to support policy and regulatory decisions in OAR and also coordinates with the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the modeling community on the development of new models and techniques. This section of the website provides reports developed by AQMG staff as well as a bibliographic listing of journal articles they have authored or co-authored.

Reports are available for download in PDF format by clicking on the title of the report. Journal articles may be retrieved at various online libraries for a fee or at libraries that carry the journal.

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Reports

2013

Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for the 2007 Fine Scale Modeling Platform
(PDF 205 pp., 30.9MB)
November 2013. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Meteorological Model Performance 2007 Fine Scale Platform
(PDF 53 pp., 3.1MB)
November 2013. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2012

Comparison of Single-Source Air Quality Assessment Techniques for Ozone, PM2.5, other Criteria Pollutants and AQRVs
(PDF 143 pp., 18.2MB)
September 2012. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the ENVIRON International Corporation. (EPA Contract No: EP-D-07-102, Work Assignment No: 4-06 and 5-08)
Evaluation of Chemical Dispersion Models using Atmospheric Plume Measurements from Field Experiments
(PDF 127 pp., 2.7MB)
September 2012. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the ENVIRON International Corporation. (EPA Contract No: EP-D-07-102, Work Assignment No: 4-06 and 5-08)
Documentation of the Evaluation of CALPUFF and Other Long Range Transport Models using Tracer Field Experiment Data
(PDF 247 pp., 8.0MB)
May 2012. Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the ENVIRON International Corporation. (EPA Contract No: EP-D-07-102, Work Assignment No: 4-06)


2011

Non-Hg Case Study Chronic Inhalation Risk Assessment In Support of the Appropriate and Necessary Finding for Coal- and Oil-Fired EGUs - Proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)
(PDF 15 pp., 418KB)
March 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: New Jersey Section 126 Petition - Proposed Rule
(PDF 63 pp., 2.9MB)
April 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Final Transport Rule
(PDF 363 pp., 11.1 MB)
June 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards
(PDF 148 pp., 5.4MB)
August 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: EGU Mercury Analysis - Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)
(PDF 19 pp., 400KB)
September 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: EGU National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)
(PDF 14 pp., 414KB)
October 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Supplement to the Non-Hg Case Study Chronic Inhalation Risk Assessment In Support of the Appropriate and Necessary Finding for Coal- and Oil-Fired EGUs - Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS)
(PDF 19 pp., 547KB)
November 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: New Jersey Section 126 Petition - Final Rule
(PDF 33 pp., 4.2MB)
December 2011. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2010

Peer Review of Source Apportionment Tools in CAMx and CMAQ
(PDF 42 pp., 613 kB)
January 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard Program
(PDF 231 pp., 20.3MB)
January 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA 454/R-10-001)
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards
(PDF 215 pp., 12.4MB)
April 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: Proposed Transport Rule
(PDF 331 pp., 4.7 MB)
June 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document: National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry
(PDF 14 pp., 185 kB)
July 2010. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2008

Technical Support Document for the Final Locomotive/Marine Rule: Air Quality Modeling Analyses
(PDF 63 pp., 2.44 MB)
January 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-08-002)
Technical Support Document:Preparation of Emissions Inventories For the 2002-based Platform,
Version 3,Criteria Air Pollutants

(PDF 77 pp., 0.93 MB)
January 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Technical Support Document:Preparation of Emissions Inventories For the 2002-based Platform,
Version 3,Criteria Air Pollutants (Appendices)

(PDF 142 pp., 0.97 MB)
January 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Air Quality Modeling Platform for the Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard
Final Rule Regulatory Impact Analysis

(PDF 17 pp., 0.30 MB)
March 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-08-003)
Technical Support Document for the Final Rule on the Control of Emissions from New Nonroad Spark-Ignition Engines: Air Quality Modeling Analyses
(PDF 67 pp., 2.51 MB)
May 2008. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-08-005)


2007

Technical Support Document for the Final Mobile Source Air Toxics Rule: Quality Modeling
(PDF 51 pp., 737 KB),
February 2007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-07-003)
Technical Support Document for Proposed Locomotive Marine Rule: Air Quality Modeling
(PDF 62 pp., 4.22 MB)
March 2007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-07-004)
Technical Support Document for Proposed Small Spark Ignition (SI) and Marine SI Emissions Standards
(PDF 18 pp., 547 KB)
April 2007. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. (EPA-454/R-07-006)


2006

Technical Support Document for the Proposed PM NAAQS Rule: Response Surface Modeling (PDF, 48 pp., 1.1 MB), February 2006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2005

Technical Support Document for Final Clean Air Mercury Rule: Air Quality Modeling (PDF, 24 pp., 218KB), March, 2005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Technical Support Document for Final Clean Air Interstate Rule: Air Quality Modeling (PDF 285 pp., 4.88 MB) , March, 2005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
CMAQ Model Performance Evaluation for 2001 (PDF, 140 pp.,2.87 MB), March, 2005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
CALPUFF Analysis in Support of the 2005 changes to the Regional Haze Rule (PDF, 57pp., 225 KB), June, 2005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2004

Technical Support Document for Interstate Air Quality Rule: Air Quality Modeling (PDF, 245 pp., 2.84 MB), January, 2004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Peer Review of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Model (PDF, 6 pp., 28.8 KB), March, 2004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Supplemental Air Quality Modeling Technical Support Document for Clean Interstate Rule (CAIR) (PDF, 27 pp., 376 KB), May, 2004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Preliminary Experimental Designs for Ozone Modeling (PDF, 24 pp., 169 KB), September 2, 2004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Annual Application of MM5 for Calendar Year 2001 at 12km Resolution (PDF, 228 pp., 15.9 MB), December 16, 2004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2003

Annual Application of MM5 for Calendar Year 2001 (PDF, 179 pp., 14.7 MB),  March 31, 2003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Technical Support Document for Proposed Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule: Air Quality Modeling (PDF, 109 pp., 909 KB), April, 2003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Episodic Application of MM5 for a summer 2001 Episode in the Eastern United States (PDF, 119 pp., 3.84 MB), September 16, 2003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2002

A Comparison of MM5 for February and July 2001 Using Alternative Input Databases (PDF, 36 pp., 3.70 MB), May7, 2002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Operational Evaluation of the MM5 Meteorological Model over the Continental United States : Protocol for Annual and Episodic Evaluation (PDF, 51 pp., 1.83 MB), July 12, 2002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
A Comparison of MM5 Model Estimates for February and July 2001 Using Alternative Model Physics Options (PDF, 85 pp., 11.1 MB),  September 27, 2002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


2000

Meteorological Modeling of 1996 for the United States with MM5 (PDF, 61 pp., 1.17 MB), September 22, 2000. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Technical Support Document for Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel Sulfur Control Requirements: Air Quality Modeling Analyses (PDF, 107 pp., 319 KB),  December, 2000. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


1999

Technical Support Document for Tier 2 Gasoline Sulfur Rule: Ozone Air Quality Modeling (PDF, 69pp., 471 KB), December, 1999. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.


1998

Technical Support Document for the NOx SIP Call: Air Quality Modeling (PDF, 384 pp., 1.19 MB), September 23, 1998. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
 

Journal Articles

Cox, W. M. and S. Chu. (1996). "Assessment of Interannual Ozone Variation in Urban Areas from a Climatological Perspective." Atmospheric Environment, Vol 30, No 14, 2615-2625.
Cox, W. M and S. Chu. (1993). "Meteorologically Adjusted Ozone Trends in Urban Areas: A Probabilistic Approach." Atmospheric Environment, Vol 27B, No 4, 425-434.
Cox, W. M. and J. Tikvart. (1990). "A Statistical Procedure for Determining the Best Performing Air Quality Simulation Model." Atmospheric Environment, Vol 24A, No 9, 2387-2395.
Dolwick, P.D. (2003). "Effect of Revised MCIP on Modeled Air Quality." 3rd Annual Ad Hoc Meteorological Modeling Meeting, Des Plaines, IL.
Dolwick, P.D., C. Jang, N. Possiel, B. Timin and J. Tikvart. (2002). "Annual Simulations of Models-3/CMAQ: Issues and Lessons Learned." 2002 Models-3 User's Workshop, RTP, NC.
Dolwick, P.D., C. Jang, and B. Timin. (1999). "Effects of Vertical Grid Resolution on Photochemical Grid Modeling." Paper 99-309, 99th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, St. Louis, MO.
Dolwick P.D., C. Jang, S. Lo, D. Olerud, J. Vukovich and N. Wheeler. (1998). "In-depth Evaluation of OTAG Modeling." 91st Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, San Diego, CA.
Dolwick P.D., C. Jang, J. Vukovich, and N. Wheeler. (1998). "Issues and Concerns Regarding Characterization of Boundary Conditions in Photochemical Grid Modeling Applications." 91st Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, San Diego, CA.
Irwin J.S., J.S. Scire and D.G. Strimaitis. (1996). "A comparison of CALPUFF modeling results with CAPTEX field data results." Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XI, ed., S.E. Gryning and F.A. Schiermeier, Plenum Press NY, 603-611.
Irwin J.S. (1998). "A Comparison of CALPUFF Modeling Results with 1977 INEL Field Data Results." Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XII, ed., S-E Gryning and N. Chammerhac, Plenum Press NY, 143-153.
Irwin J.S. and J.P. Notar. (2001). "Long-range-transport screening technique using CALPUFF." Guideline on Air Quality Modeling: A New Beginning AW&MA Specialty Conference, Newport, RI.
Irwin J.S., J. Niedzialek and J. Burzynski. (2001). "A comparison of CALPUFF air quality simulation results with monitoring data for Krakow Poland." 7th International Conference on Harmonisation Within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Beligrate, Italy.
Jang, C. J., D. Strees, A. Hanna, F. Vukovich, A. Xiu, Z. Adelman, J.H. Woo, J. Fu, B. Wang and D. Doll. (2004). "Simulations of Multiple Pollutants over the Pacific Regions Using the Models." 3rd CMAS Models-3 Workshop, Chapel Hill, NC.
Streets D.G., T.C. Bond, T. Lee and C. Jang. (2004) "On the Future of Carbonaceous Aerosol Emissions." J. Geophys. Res., v.109, D24212.
Lin, C.J., S.E. Lindberg., T.C. Ho and C. Jang. (2004). "Development of a Processor in BEIS3 for Vegetative Mercury Emission Processing in the Continental United States." Atmospheric Environment, in press.
Jang, C. J., P. Dolwick, B. Timin, N. Possiel, M. Evangelista, and J. Tikvart. (2003). "Annual Modeling Simulations of Ozone and Particulate Matter: Linkages and Emerging Issues." 96th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, San Diego, CA.
Jang, C. J. (2003). "Applications of Models-3/CMAQ System: From Urban and Regional to Hemispheric Scales." 2nd CMAS Models-3 Workshop, Chapel Hill, NC.
Fiore, A.M., D.J. Jacob, B.D. Field, D.G. Streets, S. Fernandes, and C. Jang. (2002). "Linking Air Pollution and Climate Change: The Case for Controlling Methane." Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(19), 1919.
Jang, C. J., P. Dolwick, N. Possiel, B. Timin, T. Braverman, and J. Tikvart. (2002). "Evaluation and Sensitivity Studies of USEPA’s Annual Models-3/CMAQ Simulations over Continental United States." 95th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, Baltimore, MD.
Jang, C. J., P. Dolwick, N. Possiel, B. Timin, and J. Tikvart. (2001). "Annual Application of U.S. EPA’s Third-Generation Air Quality Modeling System over Continental United States." 94th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, Orlando, FL.
Jang, C. J. and N. B. Chang. (2000). "Development and Applications of USEPA’s Regulatory Air Quality Modeling System." J. of Chinese Inst. of Environ. Eng., 10, 19-34.
Jang, C. J., N. Possiel and M. Dudek. (1999). "Comparisons of UAM-V and CAMx Model Performance and Responsiveness to Emission Control Scenarios." 92th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, St. Louis, MO.
Jang, C. J., B. Timin, J. Lawrimore, S. Holman, H. Jeffries, N. Wheeler, P. Dolwick, D. Olerud and M. Houyoux. (1998). "Advanced Air Quality Modeling System for the Simulation of Photochemical Ozone Formation over North Carolina." 91th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, San Diego, CA.
Jang, C. J., S. C.-Y. Lo and J. Vukovich. (1997). "Sensitivity of Ozone Predictions to Biogenic Hydrocarbon Chemistry and Emissions in Air Quality Models." 90th Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, Toronto, Canada.
Jang, C. J.. (1996). "A Quantitative Technique for Evaluating the Importance and Functioning of Chemical and Physical Processes in Air Quality Models." The 5th International Atmospheric Sciences and Applications to Air Quality Conference, Seattle, WA.
Jang, C. J., H. E. Jeffries, D. W. Byun and J. E. Pleim. (1995). "Sensitivity of Ozone to Model Grid Resolution: Part 1. Application of High-Resolution Regional Acid Deposition Model." Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 21, 3085-3100.
Jang, C. J., H. E. Jeffries and S. Tonnesen. (1995). "Sensitivity of Ozone to Model Grid Resolution: Part 2. Detailed Process Analysis for Ozone Chemistry." Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 29, No. 21, 3101-3114.
Jang, C. J., J. Ambrosiano, A.F. Hanna, A. Eyth, J. Vukovich, H. A. Hassen and S. S. Fine. (1995). "A Graphical User Interface and Decision Support System for Environmental Modeling Applications." Air & Waste Management Association International 1995 Pacific Rim Environmental Conference, San Francisco, CA.
Phillips, S. B. and P.L. Finkelstein. (2006). "Comparison of spatial patterns of pollutant distribution with CMAQ predictions." Atmospheric Environment 40(26), 4999-5026.
Strum, M., A. Pope, J. Thurman, D. Ensley, T. Palma, R. Mason, R. Cook and S. Shedd. (2005). "Projection of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions to Future Years." International Emission Inventory Conference: Transforming Emission Inventories - Meeting Future Challenges Today, Las Vegas, NV.
Strum, M., R. Mason and J. Thurman. (2004). "User’s Guide for the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP) Version 3." EPA 454/B-06-006.
Strum, M., L. Driver, R. Mason, J.D. Smith and R. Billings. (2004). "Spatially Allocating Airport-related Emissions for Air Quality Modeling: New Approach And New Data." International Emission Inventory Conference: Working for Clean Air in Clearwater, Clearwater, FL.
Strum, M., L. Driver, G. Gipson, W.G. Benjey, R. Cook, C. Sepannen, M. Houyoux and G. Stella. (2003). "The Use of SMOKE to Process Multi-pollutant Inventories - Integration of Hazardous Air Pollutant And Volatile Organic Compound Emissions." International Emission Inventory Conference: Emission Inventories - Applying New Technologies, San Diego, CA.
Cook, R., M. Strum, J. Touma, W. Battye, and R. Mason. (2002). "Trends in Mobile Source-Related Ambient Concentrations of Hazardous Air Pollutants, 1996 to 2007." SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-1274.
Cook R., M. Strum, J. Touma and R. Mason. (2002). "Contribution of Highway and Nonroad Mobile source Categories to Ambient Concentrations of 20 Hazardous Air Pollutants in 1996." SAE Technical Paper No. 2002-01-0650.
Mason, R., M. Strum, D. Linderman, and J. Touma. (2002). "Projection of Future Year Emissions from a Base-Year Toxics Emission Inventory." International Emission Inventory Conference: Emission Inventories - Partnering for the Future, Conference, Atlanta, GA.
Linderman, D., R. Mason and M. Strum. (2002). "User’s Guide for the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP) Version 2." EPA 454/B-02-001.
Seppanen, C., M. Houyoux, M. Strum, G. Stella and N. Possiel (2002). "Design and Applicaiton of SMOKE Integration with MOBILE6." International Emission Inventory Conference: Emission Inventories - Partnering for the Future, Atlanta, GA.
Strum, M., N. Frank, J. Touma, R. Mason and V. Isakov. (2001). "Emissions Processing and Air Quality Modeling for the National Air Toxics Assessment." Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting, Orlando, FL.
Strum, M., A. Pope, and J. Touma. (2002). "Uncertainties in the Use of the National Toxics Inventory for the Initial National Screening Assessment: Pollutant Grouping Issues." Annual Air & Waste Management Association Meeting and Exhibition, Salt Lake City, UT.
Strum, M. (2000) "User’s Guide for the Emissions Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants (EMS-HAP, Version 1.1)." EPA-454/R-00-018.
Strum, M., J. Touma, B. Battye, J. Langstaff, D. Linderman and A. Beidler. (1999). "An Emission Modeling System for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Processing the National Toxics Inventory for Dispersion Modeling." Air & Waste Management Association Specialty Conference on Emissions Inventory, Raleigh, NC.
Strum, M. (1993). "Boiler Emissions Manual." Developed for Mecklenburg County, Charlotte, NC.
Strum, M. and H.L. Toor. (1992). "Microphysical Measurements of Fog Formed in a Turbulent Jet." Aerosol Science and Technology, 16, 151-165.
Strum, M. and H.L. Toor. (1992). "Temperature Measurements in Condensing Jets." Industrial and Engineering Chemical Research, 31, 3.
Strum, M. (1991). "The Impact of Declaring Soybean Oil Exempt from VOC regulations on the Coatings Program." EPA 450/3-91-011.
Cook, Richard, M. Strum, J. Touma, T. Palma, J. Thurman, D. Ensley, and R. Smith (2007). Inhalation Exposure and Risk from Mobile Source Air Toxics in Future Years. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 17, 95-105.
Cook, Richard, J. Touma, A. Fernandez, D. Brzezinski, C. Bailey, C. Scarbro, J. Thurman, and M. Strum. (2007). Impact of Underestimating the Effects of Cold Temperature on Motor Vehicle Start Emissions of Air Toxics in the United States. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 57, 1469-1479.
Cook, Rich, V. Isakov, J. Touma, W. Benjey, J. Thurman, E. Kinnee, and D. Ensley. (2008). Resolving Local-Scale Emissions for Modeling Air Quality Near Roadways. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 58, 451-461.
Kinnee, E.J., J.S. Touma, R. Mason, J. Thurman, A. Beidler, C. Bailey, and R. Cook. (2003). Allocation of Onroad Mobile Emissions to Road Segments for Air Toxics Modeling in an Urban Area. Transportation Research Part D. 9, 139-150.
Özkaynak, Halűk, T. Palma, J. Touma, and J. Thurman. (2007). Modeling Population Exposures to Outdoor Sources of Hazardous Air Pollutants. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 1-14.
Wesson, K.H., G.G. Katul and M. Siqueira. (2002). "Quantifying Organization of Atmospheric Turbulent Eddy Motion Using Nonlinear Time Series Analysis." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 106, 507-525.
Katul, G.G., C.T. Lai, M. Siqueira, and K. Schafer, J.D. Albertson, K.H. Wesson, D. Ellsworth, and R. Oren. (2001). "Inferring Scalar Sources and Sinks within Canopies using Forward and Inverse Methods" in Observations and Modeling of Land-Surface Fluxes within Hydrologic Systems. ed., V. Lakshmi and J.D. Albertson, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 31-45.
Wesson, K.H., C.T. Lai, and G.G. Katul. (2001). "Sensible Heat Flux Estimation by Flux-Variance and Half-Order Time Derivative Methods." Water Resources Research, 37, 2333-2343.

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